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In August 2006, bluetongue virus (BTV) was detected in the Netherlands, Belgium, western Germany, Luxembourg and northern France for the first time. Consequently, a longitudinal entomological study was conducted in the affected region of northern France (Ardennes) throughout the autumn of 2006. Data on the spatio-temporal distribution of Culicoides(More)
Since 1990, South Asia has experienced a resurgence of kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis). To determine risk factors for kala-azar, we performed cross-sectional surveys over a 3-year period in a Bangladeshi community. By history, active case detection, and serologic screening, 155 of 2,356 residents had kala-azar with onset from 2000 to 2003. Risk was(More)
Bluetongue (BT) and African Horse Sickness (AHS) are infectious arthropod-borne viral diseases affecting ruminants and horses, respectively. Culicoides imicola Kieffer, 1913, a biting midge, is the principal vector of these livestock diseases in Africa and Europe. Recently bluetongue disease has re-emerged in the Mediterranean Basin and has had a(More)
A ring trial was organized to evaluate Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) ELISAs by European laboratories. A total of five ELISAs, two of which specific for IgM antibodies, were evaluated by six participants. Sera were derived from cattle or sheep and originated from either a RVFV endemic area, a RVFV-free area or from experimental infection studies. Cohen's(More)
The development of recombinant capripoxviruses for protective immunization of ruminants against bluetongue virus (BTV) infection is described. Sheep (n=11) and goats (n=4) were immunized with BTV recombinant capripoxviruses (BTV-Cpox) individually expressing four different genes encoding two capsid proteins (VP2 and VP7) and two non-structural proteins(More)
The appearance of bluetongue virus (BTV) in 2006 within northern Europe exposed a lack of expertise and resources available across this region to enable the accurate morphological identification of species of Culicoides Latreille biting midges, some of which are the major vectors of this pathogen. This work aims to organise extant Culicoides taxonomic(More)
Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) play important roles in the transmission of viral diseases affecting wild and domestic ruminants and horses, including Bluetongue (BT) and African horse sickness (AHS) respectively. In southern Europe, BT has been largely transmitted by the classical Afro-Asian vector Culicoides imicola(More)
In southern Europe, orbiviral diseases such as bluetongue (BT) have been assumed to have been largely transmitted by the classical Afro-Asian vector Culicoides imicola Kieffer (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Recent outbreaks have occurred in regions where C. imicola is normally absent, supporting the theory that other species belonging to the Obsoletus or(More)
Longitudinal investigations of an adult male population of Kenyan car washers who have heavy and quantifiable occupational exposure to Schistosoma mansoni cercariae revealed that some individuals develop resistance to reinfection while others remain highly susceptible. We sought to characterize immune correlates associated with host protection in this(More)