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The expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) is regulated by both endogenous factors and foreign compounds including drugs and natural compounds such as herbs. When herbs are co-administrated with a given drug in modern medicine it can lead to drug-herb interaction that can be clinically significant. The ability of Andrographis paniculata extract (APE) and(More)
Isolated primary human hepatocytes are a well accepted system for evaluating pharmacological and toxicological effects in humans. However, questions remain regarding how culturing affects the liver-specific functions of the hepatocytes. In addition, cryopreservation could also potentially affect the differentiation state of the hepatocytes. The first aim of(More)
Various incubation conditions of human hepatocytes were compared for their accuracy in predicting the in vivo hepatic clearance (CL(H)) of model compounds. The test compounds were the highly cleared, low protein bound naloxone (in vivo CL(H) = 25 ml min(-1) kg(-1); free fraction = 0.6), the medium clearance, highly protein bound midazolam (CL(H) = 12 ml(More)
The inhibitory effect of Andrographis paniculata extract (APE) and andrographolide (AND), the most medicinally active phytochemical in the extract, on hepatic cytochrome P450s (CYPs) activities was examined using rat and human liver microsomes. For this purpose, CYP1A2-dependent ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation, CYP2B1-dependent(More)
It is important to investigate the induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes by drugs. The most relevant end point is enzyme activity; however, this requires many cells and is low throughput. We have compared the CYP1A, CYP2B and CYP3A induction response to eight inducers in rat and human hepatocytes using enzyme activities (CYP1A2 (ethoxyresorufin), 2B(More)
Reconstructing and characterizing introduction routes is a key step towards understanding the ecological and evolutionary factors underlying successful invasions and disease emergence. Here, we aimed to decipher scenarios of introduction and stochastic demographic events associated with the global spread of an emerging disease of bananas caused by the(More)
Dispersal processes of fungal plant pathogens can be inferred from analysis of spatial genetic structures resulting from recent range expansion. The relative importance of long-distance dispersal (LDD) events vs. gradual dispersal in shaping population structures depends on the geographical scale considered. The fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis, pathogenic(More)
Starch that escapes digestion in the small intestine increases the elimination of chenodeoxycholate and its metabolites in the faeces of both mice and hamsters. In contrast, the elimination of cholate and its metabolites is not increased. In vitro, the affinity of starch for chenodeoxycholate is about 90-fold greater than for cholate. beta-Cyclodextrin,(More)
The worldwide destructive epidemic of the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis on banana started recently, spreading from South-East Asia. The founder effects detected in the global population structure of M. fijiensis reflected rare migration events among continents through movements of infected plant material. The main objective of this work was to infer gene(More)
OBJECTIVE The effects of magnesium (Mg) deficiency on the rate of oxidative stress and apoptosis in primary cultures of human hepatocytes were compared to cultured rat hepatocytes. The possible reversion by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in Mg-deficient culturing conditions was evaluated. METHODS Incubations were conducted for up to 72 h in media containing a(More)