Catherine A. Shaw

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Diesel exhaust particulate (DEP), a major component of urban air pollution, has been linked to atherogenesis and precipitation of myocardial infarction. We hypothesized that DEP exposure would increase and destabilise atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE−/−) mice. ApoE−/− mice were fed a ‘Western diet’ (8 weeks) to induce ‘complex’(More)
BACKGROUND Diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) is a key arbiter of the adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution. OBJECTIVES We assessed the in vitro effects of DEP on vascular function, nitric oxide (NO) availability, and the generation of oxygen-centered free radicals. METHODS We assessed the direct vascular effects of DEP (10-100 microg/mL) in(More)
Clinical studies have now confirmed the link between short-term exposure to elevated levels of air pollution and increased cardiovascular mortality, but the mechanisms are complex and not completely elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that activation of pulmonary sensory receptors and the sympathetic nervous system(More)
Inhalation of diesel exhaust impairs vascular function in man, by a mechanism that has yet to be fully established. We hypothesised that pulmonary exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) would cause endothelial dysfunction in rats as a consequence of pulmonary and systemic inflammation. Wistar rats were exposed to DEP (0.5 mg) or saline vehicle by(More)
Accelerated thrombus formation induced by exposure to combustion-derived air pollution has been linked to alterations in endogenous fibrinolysis and platelet activation in response to pulmonary and systemic inflammation. We hypothesised that mechanisms independent of inflammation contribute to accelerated thrombus formation following exposure to diesel(More)
OBJECTIVES There is controversy on the proposed benefits of publishing mortality rates for individual surgeons. In some procedures, analysis at the level of an individual surgeon may lack statistical power. The aim was to determine the likelihood that variation in surgeon performance will be detected using published outcome data. DESIGN A national(More)
BACKGROUND Nitric oxide (NO) can be both pro- and anti-apoptotic in various cell types, including macrophages. This apparent paradox may result from the actions of NO-related species generated in the microenvironment of the cell, for example the formation of peroxynitrite (ONOO-). In this study we have examined the ability of NO and ONOO- to evoke apoptosis(More)
Gulf War Syndrome (GWS) affects a high percentage of veterans of the 1991 conflict, but its origins remain unknown. One neurological complication of GWS is an increased incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). While many environmental factors have been linked to GWS, the role of the anthrax vaccine administered to deployed troops has come under(More)
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