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RATIONALE/OBJECTIVES Recent theoretical models suggest that the central executive may not be a unified structure. The present study explored the nature of central executive deficits in ecstasy users. METHODS In study 1, 27 ecstasy users and 34 non-users were assessed using tasks to tap memory updating (computation span; letter updating) and access to(More)
Previous research suggests that MDMA users are impaired in various aspects of cognitive functioning, however, it remains unclear whether they might experience deficits in established measures of verbal working memory functioning. In the present study current and previous MDMA users were compared with non-users on verbal working memory measures including(More)
BACKGROUND Previous investigations of executive function in alcohol dependent and in social drinkers have not always produced consistent results and have not utilised key indicators of recent theoretical models of Executive Function (EF). The present paper reports the results of two studies that seek to address these limitations. METHOD Study 1 took the(More)
Previous research in ecstasy users suggests impairment of various executive functions. In general, the executive function of response inhibition appears unaffected by ecstasy use. Nonetheless, it remains a possibility that cognitive tasks alone are not sensitive enough to pick up subtle changes in function. The current study sought to investigate(More)
We conducted a meta-analysis on the available data from studies investigating SERTs in ecstasy users and polydrug using controls. From 7 studies we compared data from 157 ecstasy users and 148 controls across 14 brain regions. The main effect suggested ecstasy/MDMA related SERT reductions (SMD=0.52, 95% CIs [0.40, 0.65]; Z=8.36, p<.01, I(2)=89%). A(More)
AIMS Ecstasy, the street name for 3,4-meththylenedioxymethamphetamine, has been associated with a range of psychiatric symptoms and impaired psychological health in both problem and recreational users. The purpose of the present paper is to determine how these impairments are related to the history of polydrug use, and the conditions under which individuals(More)
Previous research suggests that human timing may be affected by alcohol administration. The current study aimed to expand on previous research by examining the effect of alcohol on prospective timing, retrospective timing and passage of time judgements. A blind between-subjects design was employed in which participants were either administered 0 g of(More)
BACKGROUND Research shows that cannabis users exhibit deficits in prospective memory (PM) and executive function, which persist beyond acute intoxication. However, many studies rely on self-reports of memory failures or use laboratory-based measures that may not mimic functional deficits in the real world. The present study aimed to assess real-world memory(More)
Mucin glycoproteins are major secretory products of the colon and contain O-linked oligosaccharides synthesized on a polypeptide backbone. The initial step in the synthesis of O-linked oligosaccharides is the addition of N-acetylgalactosamine to serine or threonine residues forming the Tn antigen. This substance can then receive additional carbohydrate(More)