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Recent theoretical models suggest that the central executive may not be a unified structure. The present study explored the nature of central executive deficits in ecstasy users. In study 1, 27 ecstasy users and 34 non-users were assessed using tasks to tap memory updating (computation span; letter updating) and access to long-term memory (a semantic(More)
Random letter generation and computation span are tasks known to load on executive, prefrontal resources. Previous research suggests that Ecstasy users are impaired on random letter generation. The current study, employing a larger sample (44 current Ecstasy users, and 59 non-Ecstasy users), together with more effective statistical controls for other drug(More)
Previous research suggests that MDMA users are impaired in various aspects of cognitive functioning, however, it remains unclear whether they might experience deficits in established measures of verbal working memory functioning. In the present study current and previous MDMA users were compared with non-users on verbal working memory measures including(More)
Previous research draws parallels between ecstasy-related and age-related deficits in cognitive functioning. Age-related impairments in working memory have been attributed to a slow down in information processing speed. The present study compared 29 current ecstasy users, 10 previous users and 46 non-users on two tests measuring information processing speed(More)
Verbal working memory and executive deficits have been observed in ecstasy users. The present study sought to establish whether these also extended to visuo-spatial working memory. Thirty-six current ecstasy users, 12 former users (abstinent for at least 6 months) and 31 individuals that had never used ecstasy were tested on a maintenance plus type(More)
AIMS This review examined studies of executive functioning in abstinent ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA) users on tasks which had been empirically mapped onto updating, shifting, inhibition and accessing long-term memory executive processes. Studies of some aspects of visuospatial memory performance were also included because of the(More)
Previous research has demonstrated working memory and executive deficits in recreational users of MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine; Ecstasy). In turn, both of these constructs have been implicated in syllogistic reasoning performance. Twenty-two MDMA users (mean age = 21.36) and 26 MDMA nonuser controls (mean age = 21.31) were tested on syllogisms of(More)
BACKGROUND Previous investigations of executive function in alcohol dependent and in social drinkers have not always produced consistent results and have not utilised key indicators of recent theoretical models of Executive Function (EF). The present paper reports the results of two studies that seek to address these limitations. METHOD Study 1 took the(More)
Previous research has suggested that the separate aspects of executive functioning are differentially affected by ecstasy use. Although the inhibition process appears to be unaffected by ecstasy use, it is unclear whether this is true of heavy users under conditions of high demand. Tasks loading on the updating process have been shown to be adversely(More)
AIMS Research shows that users of ecstasy (MDMA) exhibit deficits in executive processes. The updating component appears to be particularly susceptible. Less is known about the precise nature of such deficits. The present study sought to determine if ecstasy-related deficits in memory updating are related to serial position of items presented, or length of(More)