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Pathogenic mycobacteria have the ability to persist in phagocytic cells and to suppress the immune system. The glycolipid lipoarabinomannan (LAM), in particular its mannose cap, has been shown to inhibit phagolysosome fusion and to induce immunosuppressive IL-10 production via interaction with the mannose receptor or DC-SIGN. Hence, the current paradigm is(More)
Melioidosis is caused by the soil saprophyte Burkholderia pseudomallei and is endemic in Southeast Asia. The pathogenesis of melioidosis is still largely unknown, although gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) seems to play an obligatory role in host defense. Previously, we have shown that IFN-gamma production in melioidosis is controlled in part by interleukin-18(More)
RATIONALE Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen that is increasingly associated with gram-negative nosocomial pneumonia, but the molecular mechanisms that play a role in innate defenses during A. baumannii infection have not been elucidated. OBJECTIVE To gain first insight into the role of CD14 and Toll-like receptors 4 and 2 in(More)
BACKGROUND Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are essential in host defense against pathogens by virtue of their capacity to detect microbes and initiate the immune response. TLR2 is seen as the most important receptor for gram-positive bacteria, while TLR4 is regarded as the gram-negative TLR. Melioidosis is a severe infection caused by the gram-negative(More)
Burkholderia pseudomallei, which causes melioidosis, a severe, mainly pulmonary disease endemic in South-East Asia, is considered to be the most pathogenic of the Burkholderia genus. B. thailandensis, however, is considered avirulent. We determined differences in patterns of inflammation of B. pseudomallei 1026b (clinical virulent isolate), B. pseudomallei(More)
BACKGROUND Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have a central role in the recognition of pathogens and the initiation of the innate immune response. Myeloid differentiation primary-response gene 88 (MyD88) and TIR-domain-containing adaptor protein inducing IFNbeta (TRIF) are regarded as the key signaling adaptor proteins for TLRs. Melioidosis, which is endemic in(More)
BACKGROUND CD14 is a pattern-recognition receptor that can facilitate the presentation of bacterial components to either Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) or TLR4. We have recently shown that during melioidosis, a severe infection caused by the gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, TLR2 but not TLR4 impacts the immune response of the intact host in(More)
There is an urgent need for an efficacious vaccine against tuberculosis (TB). Cellular immune responses are key to an effective protective response against TB. Recombinant adenovirus (rAd) vectors are especially suited to the induction of strong T-cell immunity and thus represent promising vaccine vehicles for the prevention of TB. We have previously(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLR) are crucial pattern recognition receptors in innate immunity. The importance of TLR2 in host defense against Gram-positive bacteria has been suggested by the fact that this receptor recognizes major Gram-positive cell wall components, such as peptidoglycan and lipoteichoic acid. To determine the role of TLR2 in pulmonary(More)
The development of active tuberculosis after infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is almost invariably caused by a persistent or transient state of relative immunodeficiency. Leptin, the product of the obese (ob) gene, is a pleiotropic protein produced mainly by adipocytes and is down-regulated during malnutrition and starvation, conditions closely(More)