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BACKGROUND Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are essential in host defense against pathogens by virtue of their capacity to detect microbes and initiate the immune response. TLR2 is seen as the most important receptor for gram-positive bacteria, while TLR4 is regarded as the gram-negative TLR. Melioidosis is a severe infection caused by the gram-negative(More)
BACKGROUND Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have a central role in the recognition of pathogens and the initiation of the innate immune response. Myeloid differentiation primary-response gene 88 (MyD88) and TIR-domain-containing adaptor protein inducing IFNbeta (TRIF) are regarded as the key signaling adaptor proteins for TLRs. Melioidosis, which is endemic in(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLR) are crucial pattern recognition receptors in innate immunity. The importance of TLR2 in host defense against Gram-positive bacteria has been suggested by the fact that this receptor recognizes major Gram-positive cell wall components, such as peptidoglycan and lipoteichoic acid. To determine the role of TLR2 in pulmonary(More)
TLRs are important for the recognition of conserved motifs expressed by invading bacteria. TLR4 is the signaling receptor for LPS, the major proinflammatory component of the Gram-negative cell wall, whereas CD14 serves as the ligand-binding part of the LPS receptor complex. Triggering of TLR4 results in the activation of two distinct intracellular pathways,(More)
The development of active tuberculosis after infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is almost invariably caused by a persistent or transient state of relative immunodeficiency. Leptin, the product of the obese (ob) gene, is a pleiotropic protein produced mainly by adipocytes and is down-regulated during malnutrition and starvation, conditions closely(More)
Mechanical ventilation (MV) has the potential to worsen pre-existing lung injury or even to initiate lung injury. Moreover, it is thought that injurious MV contributes to the overwhelming inflammatory response seen in patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome. Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is characterized by increased(More)
Chronic pulmonary infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is common in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. P. aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS), phosholipase C (PLC), and exotoxin A (ETA) were evaluated for their ability to induce pulmonary inflammation in mice following intranasal inoculation. Both LPS and PLC induced high levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha(More)
BACKGROUND Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) amplifies Toll-like receptor-initiated responses against pathogens. We aimed to characterize TREM-1 expression and function during sepsis caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei (melioidosis). METHODS TREM-1 expression was determined on leukocytes and plasma from 34 patients with melioidosis(More)
BACKGROUND Bacterial products add to mechanical ventilation in enhancing lung injury. The role of endogenous triggers of innate immunity herein is less well understood. S100A8/A9 proteins are released by phagocytes during inflammation. The present study investigates the role of S100A8/A9 proteins in ventilator-induced lung injury. METHODS Pulmonary(More)
In this study, the relative roles of Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4 were investigated independently and together. Moreover, we studied the role of haematopoietic compartment in anti-Klebsiella host defence. We infected TLR2 and TLR4 single-, and TLR2×4 double knockout (KO) animals with different doses of Klebsiella pneumoniae. In addition, bone marrow(More)