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MOTIVATION Accurate detection of positive Darwinian selection can provide important insights to researchers investigating the evolution of pathogens. However, many pathogens (particularly viruses) undergo frequent recombination and the phylogenetic methods commonly applied to detect positive selection have been shown to give misleading results when applied(More)
BACKGROUND Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) is an unsupervised learning technique that has been applied successfully in several fields, including signal processing, face recognition and text mining. Recent applications of NMF in bioinformatics have demonstrated its ability to extract meaningful information from high-dimensional data such as gene(More)
MOTIVATION In a diploid organism the proportion of transcripts that are produced from the two parental alleles can differ substantially due, for example to epigenetic modification that causes complete or partial silencing of one parental allele or to cis acting polymorphisms that affect transcriptional regulation. Counts of SNP alleles derived from EST(More)
BACKGROUND Keyword searching through PubMed and other systems is the standard means of retrieving information from Medline. However, ad-hoc retrieval systems do not meet all of the needs of databases that curate information from literature, or of text miners developing a corpus on a topic that has many terms indicative of relevance. Several databases have(More)
Probabilistic models of sequence evolution are in widespread use in phylogenetics and molecular sequence evolution. These models have become increasingly sophisticated and combined with statistical model comparison techniques have helped to shed light on how genes and proteins evolve. Models of codon evolution have been particularly useful, because, in(More)
Longitudinal allele frequency data are becoming increasingly prevalent. Such samples permit statistical inference of the population genetics parameters that influence the fate of mutant variants. To infer these parameters by maximum likelihood, the mutant frequency is often assumed to evolve according to the Wright-Fisher model. For computational reasons,(More)
The quest for the discovery of mathematical principles that underlie biological phenomena is ancient and ongoing. We present a geometric analysis of the complex interdigitated pavement cells in the Arabidopsis thaliana (Col.) adaxial epidermis with a view to discovering some geometric characteristics that may govern the formation of this tissue. More than(More)
Negative energy balance (NEB) is an altered metabolic state in high yielding cows that occurs during the first few weeks postpartum when energy demands for lactation and maintenance exceed the energy supply from dietary intake. NEB can, in turn, lead to metabolic disorders and to reduced fertility. Alterations in the expression of more than 700 hepatic(More)
The extent to which the order of genes along chromosomes is conserved between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and related species was studied by analysing data from DNA sequence database. As expected, the extent of gene order conservation decreases with increasing evolutionary distance. About 59% of adjacent gene pairs in Kluyveromyces lactis or K. marxianus are(More)
Gene order evolution in two eukaryotes was studied by comparing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome sequence to extensive new data from whole-genome shotgun and cosmid sequencing of Candida albicans. Gene order is substantially different between these two yeasts, with only 9% of gene pairs that are adjacent in one species being conserved as adjacent in the(More)