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BACKGROUND Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) is an unsupervised learning technique that has been applied successfully in several fields, including signal processing, face recognition and text mining. Recent applications of NMF in bioinformatics have demonstrated its ability to extract meaningful information from high-dimensional data such as gene(More)
MOTIVATION Accurate detection of positive Darwinian selection can provide important insights to researchers investigating the evolution of pathogens. However, many pathogens (particularly viruses) undergo frequent recombination and the phylogenetic methods commonly applied to detect positive selection have been shown to give misleading results when applied(More)
Past analyses of the genome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have revealed substantial regional variation in G+C content. Important questions remain, though, as to the origin, nature, significance, and generality of this variation. We conducted an extensive analysis of the yeast genome to try to answer these questions. Our results indicate that open(More)
Probabilistic models of sequence evolution are in widespread use in phylogenetics and molecular sequence evolution. These models have become increasingly sophisticated and combined with statistical model comparison techniques have helped to shed light on how genes and proteins evolve. Models of codon evolution have been particularly useful, because, in(More)
MOTIVATION In a diploid organism the proportion of transcripts that are produced from the two parental alleles can differ substantially due, for example to epigenetic modification that causes complete or partial silencing of one parental allele or to cis acting polymorphisms that affect transcriptional regulation. Counts of SNP alleles derived from EST(More)
Longitudinal allele frequency data are becoming increasingly prevalent. Such samples permit statistical inference of the population genetics parameters that influence the fate of mutant variants. To infer these parameters by maximum likelihood, the mutant frequency is often assumed to evolve according to the Wright-Fisher model. For computational reasons,(More)
The quest for the discovery of mathematical principles that underlie biological phenomena is ancient and ongoing. We present a geometric analysis of the complex interdigitated pavement cells in the Arabidopsis thaliana (Col.) adaxial epidermis with a view to discovering some geometric characteristics that may govern the formation of this tissue. More than(More)
Negative energy balance (NEB) is an altered metabolic state in high yielding cows that occurs during the first few weeks postpartum when energy demands for lactation and maintenance exceed the energy supply from dietary intake. NEB can, in turn, lead to metabolic disorders and to reduced fertility. Alterations in the expression of more than 700 hepatic(More)
Heterogeneity in sample composition is an inherent issue in many gene expression studies and, in many cases, should be taken into account in the downstream analysis to enable correct interpretation of the underlying biological processes. Typical examples are infectious diseases or immunology-related studies using blood samples, where, for example, the(More)
The extent to which the order of genes along chromosomes is conserved between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and related species was studied by analysing data from DNA sequence database. As expected, the extent of gene order conservation decreases with increasing evolutionary distance. About 59% of adjacent gene pairs in Kluyveromyces lactis or K. marxianus are(More)