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OBJECTIVES Physical activity (PA) has been hypothesized to spare gray matter volume in late adulthood, but longitudinal data testing an association has been lacking. Here we tested whether PA would be associated with greater gray matter volume after a 9-year follow-up, a threshold could be identified for the amount of walking necessary to spare gray matter(More)
CONTEXT Survival estimates help individualize goals of care for geriatric patients, but life tables fail to account for the great variability in survival. Physical performance measures, such as gait speed, might help account for variability, allowing clinicians to make more individualized estimates. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the relationship between gait(More)
Normal human aging is accompanied by progressive brain tissue loss and cognitive decline; however, several factors are thought to influence brain aging. We applied tensor-based morphometry to high-resolution brain MRI scans to determine whether educational level or physical activity was associated with brain tissue volumes in the elderly, particularly in(More)
BACKGROUND Short-term adherence to physical activity (PA) in older adults improves psychomotor processing abilities and is associated with greater brain activation. It is not known whether these associations are also significant for longer-term adherence to moderate-intensity activities. METHODS We measured the cross-sectional association of regular(More)
Recent positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in humans have localized the frontal eye field (FEF) to the precentral sulcus (PCS). In macaque monkeys, low-threshold microstimulation and single unit recording studies have located a saccadic subregion of FEF in a restricted area along the anterior wall of(More)
BACKGROUND Although several risk factors for cognitive decline have been identified, much less is known about factors that predict maintenance of cognitive function in advanced age. METHODS We studied 2,509 well-functioning black and white elders enrolled in a prospective study. Cognitive function was measured using the Modified Mini-Mental State(More)
OBJECTIVE Our objective was to identify the spatial distribution of focal atrophy within mobility-related brain regions in relationship with quantitative gait characteristics. METHODS Gray matter volume was obtained from 220 older adults (78.0 years old, 63% women, 77% white) for brain regions of five domains: motor (motor, sensorimotor and supplementary(More)
BACKGROUND Although the beneficial effects of physical activity (PA) on memory and executive function are well established in older adults, little is known about the relationship between PA and brain microstructure and the contributions of physical functional limitations and chronic diseases. This study examined whether higher PA would be longitudinally(More)
A positive association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and white matter integrity has been consistently reported in older adults. However, it is unknown whether this association exists in adults over 80 with a range of chronic disease conditions and low physical activity participation, which can influence both CRF and brain health. This study(More)