Learn More
gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a short-chain fatty acid that occurs naturally in the mammalian brain and is formed primarily from the precursor gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The properties of GHB suggest that it has a neuromodulatory role in the brain and has the ability to induce several pharmacological and behavioral effects. GHB has been used(More)
gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. GABA is converted from glutamic acid by the action of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) of which two isoforms exist GAD65 and GAD67. GABA then is broken down, both within the cell and in the synaptic cleft by GABA transaminase to form succinic(More)
BACKGROUND Evidence suggests that intestinal barrier failure in necrotizing enterocolitis results in part from overproduction of nitric oxide and other toxic oxidant species that result in enterocyte death and intestinal barrier failure. We hypothesize that the glutathione detoxifying system is important in maintaining intestinal barrier integrity by(More)
gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a short-chain fatty acid that occurs naturally in mammalian brain where it is derived metabolically from gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. GHB was synthesised over 40 years ago and its presence in the brain and a number of aspects of its biological, pharmacological and(More)
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is characterized by the upregulation of proinflammatory proteins, nitrosative stress, and increased enterocyte apoptosis. We examined the expression and regulation of the Bcl-2/adenovirus EIB 19-kDa-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3), a pro-apoptotic gene regulated by nitric oxide (NO) in hepatocytes, in NEC. Newborn rats(More)
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a disease of newborns characterized by gut barrier failure. We reasoned that upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) may result in nitrosative stress and accumulation of nitroso species in the intestine. Newborn rats were either breast-fed (BF), or formula-fed and additionally subjected to hypoxia (FFH). At(More)
The family of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) consists of eight homologous G-protein coupled receptors. Several of the mGluRs, including the mGluR4 receptor subtype, are localized presynaptically; activation of this receptor induces an inhibition of neurotransmitter release from nerve terminals. Disruption of the mGluR4 gene in mice results in(More)
BACKGROUND Sustained overproduction of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) in conditions such as necrotizing enterocolitis and inflammatory bowel disease may promote gut barrier failure by inducing enterocyte apoptosis. NF-kappaB is upregulated in the gut during inflammation and, in addition to its proinflammatory effects, may upregulate protective or(More)
High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a late mediator of endotoxemia known to stimulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines that are putative mediators of intestinal inflammation associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We hypothesized that HMGB1 is also involved in the pathogenesis of NEC. We examined the expression of HMGB1 and the effect(More)
  • 1