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Legume root architecture involves not only elaboration of the root system by the formation of lateral roots but also the formation of symbiotic root nodules in association with nitrogen-fixing soil rhizobia. The Medicago truncatula LATD/NIP gene plays an essential role in the development of both primary and lateral roots as well as nodule development. We(More)
Medicago truncatula has been developed into a model legume. Its close relative alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is the most widely grown forage legume crop in the United States. By screening a large population of M. truncatula mutants tagged with the transposable element of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cell type1 (Tnt1), we identified a mutant line (NF2089) that(More)
A Tnt1-insertion mutant population of Medicago truncatula ecotype R108 was screened for defects in nodulation and symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Primary screening of 9,300 mutant lines yielded 317 lines with putative defects in nodule development and/or nitrogen fixation. Of these, 230 lines were rescreened, and 156 lines were confirmed with defective(More)
Legumes form root nodules to house nitrogen fixing bacteria of the rhizobium family. The rhizobia are located intracellularly in the symbiotic nodule cells. In the legume Medicago truncatula these cells produce high amounts of Nodule-specific Cysteine-Rich (NCR) peptides which induce differentiation of the rhizobia into enlarged, polyploid and(More)
Medicago truncatula and Sinorhizobium meliloti form a symbiotic association resulting in the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules. Nodule cells contain large numbers of bacteroids which are differentiated, nitrogen-fixing forms of the symbiotic bacteria. In the nodules, symbiotic plant cells home and maintain hundreds of viable bacteria. In order to better(More)
Transcription factors (TFs) are thought to regulate many aspects of nodule and symbiosis development in legumes, although few TFs have been characterized functionally. Here, we describe regulator of symbiosome differentiation (RSD) of Medicago truncatula, a member of the Cysteine-2/Histidine-2 (C2H2) family of plant TFs that is required for normal(More)
The AGC protein kinase family (cAMP-dependent protein kinases A, cGMP-dependent protein kinases G, and phospholipid-dependent protein kinases C) have important roles regulating growth and development in animals and fungi. They are activated via lipid second messengers by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase coupling lipid signals to phosphorylation(More)
Reduction of lignin levels in the forage legume alfalfa (Medicago sativa) by down-regulation of the monolignol biosynthetic enzyme hydroxycinnamoyl coenzyme A:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) results in strongly increased digestibility and processing ability of lignocellulose. However, these modifications are often also associated with dwarfing(More)
Optimization of nitrogen fixation by rhizobia in legumes is a key area of research for sustainable agriculture. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) occurs in specialized organs called nodules and depends on a steady supply of carbon to both plant and bacterial cells. Here we report the functional characterization of a nodule-specific Suc transporter,(More)
In Medicago truncatula nodules, the soil bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti reduces atmospheric dinitrogen into nitrogenous compounds that the legume uses for its own growth. In nitrogen-fixing nodules, each infected cell contains symbiosomes, which include the rhizobial cell, the symbiosome membrane surrounding it, and the matrix between the bacterium and(More)