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Type I interferons (IFNs) exert anti-viral effects through the induction of numerous IFN-stimulated genes and an immunomodulatory effect on innate and adaptive immune responses. This is beneficial in controlling virus infections but prolonged IFN-α activity in persistent virus infections, such as HIV infection, may contribute to immune activation and have a(More)
Surface topographical features on biomaterials, both at the submicrometre and nanometre scales, are known to influence the physicochemical interactions between biological processes involving proteins and cells. The nanometre-structured surface features tend to resemble the extracellular matrix, the natural environment in which cells live, communicate, and(More)
BACKGROUND Type I interferons (IFNs) exhibit direct antiviral effects, but also distinct immunomodulatory properties. In this study, we analyzed type I IFN subtypes for their effect on prophylactic adenovirus-based anti-retroviral vaccination of mice against Friend retrovirus (FV) or HIV. RESULTS Mice were vaccinated with adenoviral vectors encoding FV(More)
In the event of a novel influenza A virus pandemic, prophylaxis mediated by antibodies provides an adjunct control option to vaccines and antivirals. This strategy is particularly pertinent to unvaccinated populations at risk during the lag time to produce and distribute an effective vaccine. Therefore, development of effective prophylactic therapies is of(More)
OBJECTIVE We investigated plasma and flow cytometric biomarkers of monocyte status that have been associated with prognostic utility in HIV infection and other chronic inflammatory diseases, comparing 81 HIV+ individuals with a range of treatment outcomes to a group of 21 healthy control blood donors. Our aim is to develop and optimise monocyte assays that(More)
Interferons (IFNs) comprise type I, II and III families with multiple subtypes. Via transcription of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), IFNs can exert multiple biological effects on the cell. In infectious and chronic inflammatory diseases, the IFNs and their ISG sets can be potentially utilized as biomarkers of disease outcome. Animal models allow investigations(More)
Type I and III interferons (IFNs) of the innate immune system belong to a polygenic family, however the individual subtype mediators of the antiviral response in viral infections have been hindered by a lack of reagents. Evaluation studies using different IFN subtypes have distinguished distinct protein properties with different efficacies towards different(More)
Immunological homeostasis in the respiratory tract is thought to require balanced interactions between networks of dendritic cell (DC) subsets in lung microenvironments in order to regulate tolerance or immunity to inhaled antigens and pathogens. Influenza A virus (IAV) poses a serious threat of long-term disruption to this balance through its potent(More)
Influenza is a perennial problem affecting millions of people annually with the everpresent threat of devastating pandemics. Active prophylaxis by vaccination against influenza virus is currently the main countermeasure supplemented with antivirals. However, disadvantages of this strategy include the impact of antigenic drift, necessitating constant(More)
We investigate the associations of three established plasma biomarkers in the context of HIV and treatment-related variables including a comprehensive cardiovascular disease risk assessment, within a large ambulatory HIV cohort. Patients were recruited in 2010 to form the Royal Perth Hospital HIV/CVD risk cohort. Plasma sCD14, sCD163 and CXCL10 levels were(More)
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