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An elementary way of using language is to refer to objects. Often, these objects are physically present in the shared environment and reference is done via mention of perceivable properties of the objects. This is a type of language use that is modelled well neither by logical semantics nor by distributional semantics, the former focusing on inferential(More)
This paper discusses development and evaluation of a practical, valid and reliable instrument for evaluating the spoken language abilities of second-language (L2) learners of English. First we sketch the theory and history behind elicited imitation (EI) tests and the renewed interest in them. Then we present how we developed a new test based on various(More)
In situated dialogue, speakers share time and space. We present a statistical model for understanding natural language that works incrementally (i.e., in real, shared time) and is grounded (i.e., links to entities in the shared space). We describe our model with an example, then establish that our model works well on non-situated, telephony application-type(More)
We present work on understanding natural language in a situated domain, that is, language that possibly refers to visually present entities , in an incremental, word-byword fashion. Such type of understanding is required in conversational systems that need to act immediately on language input, such as multi-modal systems or dialogue systems for robots. We(More)
Holding non-co-located conversations while driving is dangerous (Horrey and Wickens, 2006; Strayer et al., 2006), much more so than conversations with physically present, " situated " interlocutors (Drews et al., 2004). In-car dialogue systems typically resemble non-co-located conversations more, and share their negative impact (Strayer et al., 2013). We(More)
When a passenger speaks to a driver, he or she is co-located with the driver, is generally aware of the situation, and can stop speaking to allow the driver to focus on the driving task. In-car dialogue systems ignore these important aspects, making them more distracting than even cell-phone conversations. We developed and tested a "situationally-aware"(More)
In order to process incremental situated dialogue, it is necessary to accept information from various sensors, each tracking , in real-time, different aspects of the physical situation. We present extensions of the incremental processing toolkit IN-PROTK which make it possible to plug in such multimodal sensors and to achieve situated, real-time dialogue.(More)
It is established that driver distraction is the result of sharing cognitive resources between the primary task (driving) and any other secondary task. In the case of holding conversations, a human passenger who is aware of the driving conditions can choose to interrupt his speech in situations potentially requiring more attention from the driver, but(More)
A large part of human communication involves referring to entities in the world and often these entities are objects that are visually present for the interlocutors. A system that aims to resolve such references needs to tackle a complex task: objects and their visual features need to be determined, the referring expressions must be recognised, and(More)