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Since the completion of the genome sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in 1996 (refs 1, 2), there has been a large increase in complete genome sequences, accompanied by great advances in our understanding of genome evolution. Although little is known about the natural and life histories of yeasts in the wild, there are an increasing number of studies(More)
A major challenge of biology is understanding the relationship between molecular genetic variation and variation in quantitative traits, including fitness. This relationship determines our ability to predict phenotypes from genotypes and to understand how evolutionary forces shape variation within and between species. Previous efforts to dissect the(More)
Comparative analysis of multiple genomes in a phylogenetic framework dramatically improves the precision and sensitivity of evolutionary inference, producing more robust results than single-genome analyses can provide. The genomes of 12 Drosophila species, ten of which are presented here for the first time (sechellia, simulans, yakuba, erecta, ananassae,(More)
BACKGROUND Transposable elements are found in the genomes of nearly all eukaryotes. The recent completion of the Release 3 euchromatic genomic sequence of Drosophila melanogaster by the Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project has provided precise sequence for the repetitive elements in the Drosophila euchromatin. We have used this genomic sequence to describe(More)
We present evidence that membrane transporters can control the membrane receptor's agonist concentration in restricted extracellular spaces of a biological model. The model is constructed by co-expressing glycine/Na/Cl cotransporters (GLYT1b) and NMDA receptors (NMDARs) (composed of the subunits NR1 and NR2A or NR2B) in Xenopus oocytes. We use the(More)
BACKGROUND It is widely accepted that comparative sequence data can aid the functional annotation of genome sequences; however, the most informative species and features of genome evolution for comparison remain to be determined. RESULTS We analyzed conservation in eight genomic regions (apterous, even-skipped, fushi tarazu, twist, and Rhodopsins 1, 2, 3(More)
The identification and study of the cis-regulatory elements that control gene expression are important areas of biological research, but few resources exist to facilitate large-scale bioinformatics studies of cis-regulation in metazoan species. Drosophila melanogaster, with its well-annotated genome, exceptional resources for comparative genomics and long(More)
Eukaryotic gene expression is mediated by compact cis-regulatory modules, or enhancers, which are bound by specific sets of transcription factors. The combinatorial interaction of these bound transcription factors determines time- and tissue-specific gene activation or repression. The even-skipped stripe 2 element controls the expression of the second(More)
UNLABELLED Despite increasing numbers of computational tools developed to predict cis-regulatory sequences, the availability of high-quality datasets of transcription factor binding sites limits advances in the bioinformatics of gene regulation. Here we present such a dataset based on a systematic literature curation and genome annotation of DNase I(More)
Lack of knowledge about how regulatory regions evolve in relation to their structure-function may limit the utility of comparative sequence analysis in deciphering cis-regulatory sequences. To address this we applied reverse genetics to carry out a functional genetic complementation analysis of a eukaryotic cis-regulatory module-the even-skipped stripe 2(More)