Casey J. Carter

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Bites from the hard tick Amblyomma americanum are associated with a Lyme disease-like illness in the southern United States. To identify possible etiologic agents for this disorder, A. americanum ticks were collected in Missouri, Texas, New Jersey, and New York and examined microscopically. Uncultivable spirochetes were present in approximately 2% of the(More)
Relapsing fever and Lyme disease spirochetes of the genus Borrelia display at their surfaces abundant lipoproteins: Vmp proteins in Borrelia hermsii and Osp proteins in Borrelia burgdorferi. Vmp and Osp proteins largely determine serotype specificity, and neutralizing antibodies of infected or immunized animals are directed at them. For the present study,(More)
Borrelia hermsii, an agent of relapsing fever, undergoes antigenic variation of serotype-specifying membrane proteins during mammalian infections. When B. hermsii is cultivated in broth medium, one serotype, 33, eventually predominates in the population. Serotype 33 has also been found to be dominant in ticks but not in mammalian hosts. We investigated the(More)
Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, loses its ability to infect and cause disease in mammalian hosts after repeated in vitro passage. To identify proteins preferentially expressed by the low-passage strain and thus representing potential virulence factors, the polypeptide profiles of virulent, low-passage and nonvirulent, high-passage(More)
Borrelia hermsii, an agent of relapsing fever, avoids the host's immune response by means of multiphasic antigenic variation. Serotype specificity is determined by variable antigens called the Vmp lipoproteins. Through recombination between linear plasmids a formerly silent vmp gene replaces another vmp gene at a telomeric expression locus. We examined(More)
Borrelia hermsii, a relapsing fever agent, undergoes multiphasic antigenic variation to evade its host's immune response. Serotype specificity is determined by variable membrane lipoproteins, Vmps, which are expressed from genes located near the end of a linear plasmid. Using the polymerase chain reaction and primers representing the promoter of the active(More)
The relapsing fever agent, Borrelia hermsii, undergoes multiphasic antigenic variation to evade its host's immune response. A frequently observed switch is serotype 7 to 26. Unlike silent vmp genes previously characterized, the transcriptionally silent vmp26 sequence was a pseudogene in lacking a start codon. In serotype 7 the location of the silent vmp26(More)
The spirochete Borrelia hermsii avoids the immune response of its mammalian host through multiphasic antigenic variation. Serotype specificity is determined by variable antigens, Vmp proteins, in the outer membrane. Through nonreciprocal recombination between linear plasmids, a formerly silent vmp gene replaces another vmp gene downstream from a common(More)
Cytokine induction during Chlamydia trachomatis pneumonia may alter the pathogenesis or course of disease. We examined interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6 production by measuring mRNA and bioactivity in murine lungs. mRNA and bioactivity for IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-6 increased after Chlamydia infection. These cytokines may be important in regulating host(More)
A linear plasmid of Borrelia burgdorferi had 16,927 bp, a G+C content of 23.1%, a relative deficiency of CpG dinucleotides, and open reading frames A to O. The OrfC and OrfE proteins were similar to hypothetical proteins encoded by circular plasmids of B. burgdorferi. The OrfM and OrfN proteins were similar to replication proteins of circular plasmids of(More)