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In 11 studies, we found that participants typically did not enjoy spending 6 to 15 minutes in a room by themselves with nothing to do but think, that they enjoyed doing mundane external activities much more, and that many preferred to administer electric shocks to themselves instead of being left alone with their thoughts. Most people seem to prefer to be(More)
The article advances the hypothesis that the seasonal and inter-annual variability of rainfall is a significant and measurable factor in the economic development of nations. An analysis of global datasets reveals a statistically significant relationship between greater rainfall variability and lower per capita GDP. Having established this correlation, we(More)
In this study, we identify climatic influences on summer monsoon inflow to the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) in the Yangtze River Basin and use indices of these influences to predict streamflow one season ahead. Summer monsoon streamflow at Yichang hydrological station (YHS) was analyzed for the period 1882–2003. Statistical analysis was used to develop a(More)
W ill we run out of fresh water in the 21 st century? The media highlights the parched lands, dry riverbeds and springs and falling groundwater tables across the world daily. Over a billion people living in developing countries without access to safe drinking water are facing economic and water poverty' I Another real and troubling indicator is the rapid(More)
BACKGROUND The effect of anthropogenic noise on terrestrial wildlife is a relatively new area of study with broad ranging management implications. Noise has been identified as a disturbance that has the potential to induce behavioral responses in animals similar to those associated with predation risk. This study investigated potential impacts of a variety(More)
[1] It is widely acknowledged that climate variability modifies the frequency spectrum of extreme hydrologic events. Traditional hydrological frequency analysis methods do not account for year to year shifts in flood risk distributions that arise due to changes in exogenous factors that affect the causal structure of flood risk. We use Hierarchical Bayesian(More)
Estimation and inferences for the hemodynamic response functions (HRF) using multi-subject fMRI data are considered. Within the context of the General Linear Model, two new nonparametric estimators for the HRF are proposed. The first is a kernel-smoothed estimator, which is used to construct hypothesis tests on the entire HRF curve, in contrast to only(More)
In order to plan strategies for adaptation to climate change, the current effects of climate on economic growth needs to be understood. This study reviews evidence of climate effects on economic growth and presents original analysis of the effect in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Case studies from the literature demonstrate that historically, climate has had(More)
This paper explores the potential for seasonal prediction of hydrological variables that are potentially useful for reservoir operation of the Three Gorges Dam, China. The seasonal flow of the primary inflow season and the peak annual flow are investigated at Yichang hydrological station, a proxy for inflows to the Three Gorges Dam. Building on literature(More)