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Temple-Baraitser syndrome (TBS) is a multisystem developmental disorder characterized by intellectual disability, epilepsy, and hypoplasia or aplasia of the nails of the thumb and great toe. Here we report damaging de novo mutations in KCNH1 (encoding a protein called ether à go-go, EAG1 or KV10.1), a voltage-gated potassium channel that is predominantly(More)
The transcriptional networks that regulate embryonic stem (ES) cell pluripotency and lineage specification are the subject of considerable attention. To date such studies have focused almost exclusively on protein-coding transcripts. However, recent transcriptome analyses show that the mammalian genome contains thousands of long noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs),(More)
It has been reported that relatively short RNAs of heterogeneous sizes are derived from sequences near the promoters of eukaryotic genes. In conjunction with the FANTOM4 project, we have identified tiny RNAs with a modal length of 18 nt that map within -60 to +120 nt of transcription start sites (TSSs) in human, chicken and Drosophila. These transcription(More)
The majority of introns in gene transcripts are found within the coding sequences (CDSs). A small but significant fraction of introns are also found to reside within the untranslated regions (5'UTRs and 3'UTRs) of expressed sequences. Alignment of the whole genome and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana has identified(More)
Despite the presence of over 3 million transposons separated on average by approximately 500 bp, the human and mouse genomes each contain almost 1000 transposon-free regions (TFRs) over 10 kb in length. The majority of human TFRs correlate with orthologous TFRs in the mouse, despite the fact that most transposons are lineage specific. Many human TFRs also(More)
Using deep sequencing (deepCAGE), the FANTOM4 study measured the genome-wide dynamics of transcription-start-site usage in the human monocytic cell line THP-1 throughout a time course of growth arrest and differentiation. Modeling the expression dynamics in terms of predicted cis-regulatory sites, we identified the key transcription regulators, their(More)
The 30 untranslated regions (30UTRs) of eukaryotic genes regulate mRNA stability, localization and translation. Here, we present evidence that large numbers of 30UTRs in human, mouse and fly are also expressed separately from the associated protein-coding sequences to which they are normally linked, likely by post-transcriptional cleavage. Analysis of CAGE(More)
Hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum is a rare leukoencephalopathy that was identified using magnetic resonance imaging in 2002. In 2013, whole exome sequencing of 11 patients with the disease revealed that they all had the same de novo mutation in TUBB4A, which encodes tubulin β-4A. We investigated the mutation spectrum in a(More)
Developmental eye diseases, including cataract/microcornea, Peters anomaly and coloboma/microphthalmia/anophthalmia, are caused by mutations encoding many different signalling and structural proteins in the developing eye. All modes of Mendelian inheritance occur and many are sporadic cases, so provision of accurate recurrence risk information for families(More)
We have recently shown that transcription initiation RNAs (tiRNAs) are derived from sequences immediately downstream of transcription start sites. Here, using cytoplasmic and nuclear small RNA high-throughput sequencing datasets, we report the identification of a second class of nuclear-specific approximately 17- to 18-nucleotide small RNAs whose 3' ends(More)