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As part of a World Health Organization-led effort to update the empirical evidence base for the leishmaniases, national experts provided leishmaniasis case data for the last 5 years and information regarding treatment and control in their respective countries and a comprehensive literature review was conducted covering publications on leishmaniasis in 98(More)
Current estimates of the global burden of disease for diarrhoea are reported and compared with previous estimates made using data collected in 1954-79 and 1980-89. A structured literature review was used to identify studies that characterized morbidity rates by prospective surveillance of stable populations and studies that characterized mortality(More)
Chagas' disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and causes potentially life-threatening disease of the heart and gastrointestinal tract. The southern half of the United States contains enzootic cycles of T. cruzi, involving 11 recognized triatomine vector species. The greatest vector diversity and density occur in the western United(More)
To address the source of infection in humans and public health importance of Giardia duodenalis parasites from animals, nucleotide sequences of the triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene were generated for 37 human isolates, 15 dog isolates, 8 muskrat isolates, 7 isolates each from cattle and beavers, and 1 isolate each from a rat and a rabbit. Distinct(More)
CONTEXT Because of population migration from endemic areas and newly instituted blood bank screening, US clinicians are likely to see an increasing number of patients with suspected or confirmed chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection (Chagas disease). OBJECTIVE To examine the evidence base and provide practical recommendations for evaluation, counseling, and(More)
Cryptosporidium parvum is usually considered to be the pathogen responsible for human cryptosporidiosis. We genotyped Cryptosporidium in 132 stool specimens from 80 Peruvian children, representing 85 infection episodes, using techniques that differentiate Cryptosporidium species and C. parvum genotypes. Five types of Cryptosporidium were identified: C.(More)
Since 1980, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has reemerged as a public health problem in lowland Nepal. We conducted a case-control study to identify risk factors. In univariate analyses among 84 cases and 105 controls, protective factors included sleeping on a bed or cot (Odds ratio [OR] 0.44, P < 0.01) and sleeping under a bed-net regularly (OR 0.23, P <(More)
In order to update global estimates of diarrhoeal morbidity and mortality in developing countries, we carried out a review of articles published from 1980 to the present and calculated median estimates for the incidence of diarrhoea and diarrhoeal mortality among under-5-year-olds. The incidence of diarrhoea obtained (2.6 episodes per child per year) was(More)
Leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease, has strong but complex links with poverty. The burden of leishmaniasis falls disproportionately on the poorest segments of the global population. Within endemic areas, increased infection risk is mediated through poor housing conditions and environmental sanitation, lack of personal protective measures and(More)
Among parasitic diseases, morbidity and mortality caused by leishmaniasis are surpassed only by malaria and lymphatic filariasis. However, estimation of the leishmaniasis disease burden is challenging, due to clinical and epidemiological diversity, marked geographic clustering, and lack of reliable data on incidence, duration, and impact of the various(More)