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Many people are trying to be smarter every day. How's about you? There are many ways to evoke this case you can find knowledge and lesson everywhere you want. However, it will involve you to get what call as the preferred thing. When you need this kind of sources, the following book can be a great choice. gene genealogies variation and evolution a primer in(More)
Freshwater ecosystems are among the most endangered habitats on Earth, with thousands of animal species known to be threatened or already extinct. Reliable monitoring of threatened organisms is crucial for data-driven conservation actions but remains a challenge owing to nonstandardized methods that depend on practical and taxonomic expertise, which is(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a class of small noncoding RNAs with important posttranscriptional regulatory functions. Recent data suggest that miRNAs are aberrantly expressed in many human cancers and that they may play significant roles in carcinogenesis. Here, we used microarrays to profile the expression of 315 human miRNAs in 10 normal mucosa samples and 49(More)
Histories of sequences in the coalescent model with recombination can be simulated using an algorithm that takes as input a sample of extant sequences. The algorithm traces the history of the sequences going back in time, encountering recombinations and coalescence (duplications) until the ancestral material is located on one sequence for homologous(More)
Most studies of networks have only looked at small subsets of the true network. Here, we discuss the sampling properties of a network's degree distribution under the most parsimonious sampling scheme. Only if the degree distributions of the network and randomly sampled subnets belong to the same family of probability distributions is it possible to(More)
PURPOSE Epigenetic alterations are common and can now be addressed in a parallel fashion. We investigated the methylation in bladder cancer with respect to location in genome, consistency, variation in metachronous tumors, impact on transcripts, chromosomal location, and usefulness as urinary markers. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN A microarray assay was utilized to(More)
It is generally believed that sequence heterogeneity in PCR products from fossil remains are due to regular DNA polymerase errors as well as miscoding lesions compounded by damage in the template DNA (Pääbo 1990; Handt et al. 1994b, 1996; Höss et al. 1996; Krings et al. 1997). However, it has been difficult to test the frequency with which this assumption(More)
After the completion of the human and other genome projects it emerged that the number of genes in organisms as diverse as fruit flies, nematodes, and humans does not reflect our perception of their relative complexity. Here, we provide reliable evidence that the size of protein interaction networks in different organisms appears to correlate much better(More)
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) comprise a large class of repetitive retroelements. Most HERVs are ancient and invaded our genome at least 25 million years ago, except for the evolutionary young HERV-K group. The far majority of the encoded genes are degenerate due to mutational decay and only a few non-HERV-K loci are known to retain intact reading(More)
Genetic analyses of permafrost and temperate sediments reveal that plant and animal DNA may be preserved for long periods, even in the absence of obvious macrofossils. In Siberia, five permafrost cores ranging from 400,000 to 10,000 years old contained at least 19 different plant taxa, including the oldest authenticated ancient DNA sequences known, and(More)