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In which way do computing experiences shape attitudes towards computer science? Why do they foster some students' commitment to the subject while they deter others? By using a qualitative research approach we observed that computing experiences have impacts on several dimensions: They affect the self-image with regard to computing, the world-image with(More)
In this paper we present results of an empirical study with about 600 secondary school students from the 11th grade.In the study novices' conceptions of software development, their attitudes towards and self-confidence with computers, as well as their expectations of learning goals and contents of informatics courses were examined.The study indicates that(More)
Slowly migrating cells such as fibroblasts leave behind a "migration track," which has been assumed not to occur in fast-moving cells such as keratinocytes. Here we show that keratinocytes left behind "migration tracks" of cellular remnants consisting of membranous patches or macroaggregates that were anchored to a meshwork of extracellular matrix proteins(More)
In this article, we try to create a general, worldwide picture of teachers' opinion about what should be taught in introductory programming courses. We focus on the debate about restructuring CS1. The study explores what teachers believe is important to teach, what they actually teach, and what students find most difficult (according to their teachers).(More)
In an international study, experts reflected on their national state of computer science education in school, and the associated situation and education of computer science teachers. While these situations are shaped by local circumstances, they are also shaped by changes in the discipline. The results of the study showed a number of recurrent themes and(More)
Code reading, although an integral part of program comprehension, is rarely reflected. In this paper, we want to argue for a research approach and direction exploiting the potential that lies in the analysis of reading processes. Based on the vast experience compiled in psychology and some studies in computing, eye tracking and think aloud were elaborated(More)
Research shows that examples play an important role for cognitive skill acquisition. Students as well as teachers rank examples as important resources for learning to program. Therefore examples must be consistent with the principles and rules of the topics we are teaching. However, educators often struggle to find or develop objectoriented example(More)
While knowledge about reading behavior in natural-language text is abundant, little is known about the visual attention distribution when reading source code of computer programs. Yet, this knowledge is important for teaching programming skills as well as designing IDEs and programming languages. We conducted a study in which 15 programmers with various(More)
A novel family of focal adhesion proteins, the kindlins, is involved in attachment of the actin cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane and in integrin-mediated cellular processes. Deficiency of kindlin-1, as a result of loss-of-function mutations in the KIND1 gene, causes Kindler syndrome, an autosomal recessive genodermatosis characterized by skin blistering,(More)