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An analytical method was developed for the determination of nine antiviral drugs (acyclovir, abacavir, lamivudine, nevirapine oseltamivir, penciclovir, ribavirin, stavudine, zidovudine) and one active metabolite (oseltamivir carboxylate) in raw and treated wastewater as well as in surface water using LC/ESI tandem MS detection. Relative recoveries exceeded(More)
In western societies, clean and safe drinking water is often taken for granted, but there are threats to drinking water resources that should not be underestimated. Contamination of drinking water sources by anthropogenic chemicals is one threat that is particularly widespread in industrialized nations. Recently, a significant amount of attention has been(More)
The production and use of nanoparticles (NP) has steadily increased within the last decade; however, knowledge about risks of NP to human health and ecosystems is still scarce. Common knowledge concerning NP effects on freshwater organisms is largely limited to standard short-term (≤48 h) toxicity tests, which lack both NP fate characterization and an(More)
The veterinary parasiticide ivermectin was selected as a case study compound within the project ERAPharm (Environmental Risk Assessment of Pharmaceuticals). Based on experimental data generated within ERAPharm and additional literature data, an environmental risk assessment (ERA) was performed mainly according to international and European guidelines. For(More)
Carbamazepine (CBZ) and oxcarbazepine (OXC) are widely used anticonvulsants that are extensively metabolized in the human body. The pharmaceuticals and their human metabolites are present in influents and effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), in rivers and streams, and in drinking water. In this study, the biodegradation of OXC and its main(More)
The biotransformation of the two antiviral drugs, acyclovir (ACV) and penciclovir (PCV), was investigated in contact with activated sludge. Biodegradation kinetics were determined, and transformation products (TPs) were identified using Hybrid Linear Ion Trap- FT Mass Spectrometry (LTQ Orbitrap Velos) and 1D (1H NMR, 13C NMR) and 2D (1H,1H-COSY,(More)
This work shows that the main photochemical pathways of acetaminophen (APAP) transformation in surface waters would be direct photolysis (with quantum yield of (4.57 ± 0.17)⋅10(-2)), reaction with CO3(-·) (most significant at pH > 7, with second-order rate constant of (3.8 ± 1.1)⋅10(8) M(-1) s(-1)) and possibly, for dissolved organic carbon higher than 5 mg(More)
This study investigated the long-term fate of (3)H-ivermectin and its metabolites in aerobic sediment/water systems. Total radioactivity in sediment and water was measured by Liquid Scintillation Counting and Radio-HPLC was used for determination of transformation products. The test system, containing a cooling and a water trap, showed excellent(More)
The oxidation of the antiviral drug acyclovir (ACV) and its main biotransformation product carboxy-acyclovir (carboxy-ACV) by ozone was investigated. Both compounds have recently been detected in surface water, and carboxy-ACV has also been detected in drinking water. The experiments revealed a strong pH dependence of the oxidation of ACV and carboxy-ACV(More)
The pore water transport of antimony and titanium, applied as nanoparticles (NPs), was studied by spiking stable suspensions of two different nanomaterials on the surface of an undisturbed floodplain soil. For preparation of stable dispersions, two different strategies were followed. (i) Comparable to those used in industrial applications: titanium dioxide(More)