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BACKGROUND The negative impact of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on airway diseases in children is well known. Whether there is an effect on atopic eczema is not clear. OBJECTIVES To determine the impact of ETS on atopic eczema, allergic sensitization and allergic airway diseases in 1669 school beginners. METHODS The prevalence of atopy-related(More)
Farming and herding were introduced to Europe from the Near East and Anatolia; there are, however, considerable arguments about the mechanisms of this transition. Were it the people who moved and either outplaced or admixed with the indigenous hunter-gatherer groups? Or was it material and information that moved—the Neolithic Package— consisting of(More)
The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was one of the first great civilizations in prehistory. This bronze age civilization flourished from the end of the fourth millennium BC. It disintegrated during the second millennium BC; despite much research effort, this decline is not well understood. Less research has been devoted to the emergence of the IVC, which(More)
The introduction and emergence of agriculture into Eastern North America and Europe proceeded very differently: it varied in timing, speed, and mechanism—despite similar woodland environments. To resolve the different subsistence paths, I employ the Global Land Use and technology Evolution Simulator, a numerical model for simulating demography, innovation,(More)
Was the spread of agropastoralism from the Fertile Crescent throughout Europe influenced by extreme climate events, or was it independent of climate? We here generate idealized climate events using palaeoclimate records. In a mathematical model of regional sociocultural development, these events disturb the subsistence base of simulated forager and farmer(More)
Here, we present a community perspective on how to explore, exploit and evolve the diversity in aquatic ecosystem models. These models play an important role in understanding the functioning of aquatic ecosystems, filling in observation gaps and developing effective strategies for water quality management. In this spirit, numerous models have been developed(More)
BACKGROUND Mite allergen exposure is an important risk factor for specific IgE production and is associated with asthma, hay fever and eczema. Whether these associations are independent of mite species has not been investigated so far. OBJECTIVES To investigate the influence of exposure to the major house dust mite (HDM) allergens Der p 1 and Der f 1 on(More)
The most profound change in the relationship between humans and their environment was the introduction of agriculture and pastoralism. With this millennia lasting economic shift from simple food acquisition to complex food production humankind paved the way for its grand transitional process from mobile groups to sedentary villages, towns and ultimately(More)
In the many transitions from foraging to agropastoralism it is debated whether innovation in technology or increase of population is the primary driver. The driver discussion traditionally separates Malthusian (technology driven) from Boserupian (population driven) theories. I present a numerical model of the transition to agriculture and discuss this model(More)
Land is a basic resource for wealth creation, and on it activities of man take place. Efficient information on land is a good foundation for wealth generation and national development. Land valuation is an important component in land administration. Information on land value comprises the ownership, tenure and use of land; for, in principle, it is not the(More)