Carsten Krieg

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Embryogenesis of the free-living soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans produces a juvenile having about 550 cells at hatching. We have determined the lineages of 182 cells by tracing the divisions of individual cells in living embryos. An invariant pattern of cleavage divisions of the egg generates a set of stem cells. These stem cells are the founders of(More)
The immunostimulatory cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a growth factor for a wide range of leukocytes, including T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Considerable effort has been invested in using IL-2 as a therapeutic agent for a variety of immune disorders ranging from AIDS to cancer. However, adverse effects have limited its use in the clinic. On(More)
IL-2 plays a pivotal role in regulating the adaptive immune system by controlling the survival and proliferation of regulatory T (Treg) cells, which are required for the maintenance of immune tolerance. Moreover, IL-2 is implicated in the differentiation and homeostasis of effector T-cell subsets, including T(H)1, T(H)2, T(H)17, and memory CD8+ T cells. The(More)
IL-2 immunotherapy is an attractive treatment option for certain metastatic cancers. However, administration of IL-2 to patients can lead, by ill-defined mechanisms, to toxic adverse effects including severe pulmonary edema. Here, we show that IL-2-induced pulmonary edema is caused by direct interaction of IL-2 with functional IL-2 receptors (IL-2R) on lung(More)
B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) is a negative regulator of T cell activation, but its function in vivo is not well characterized. Here we show that mice deficient in full-length BTLA or its ligand, herpesvirus entry mediator, had increased number of memory CD8(+) T cells. The memory CD8(+) T cell phenotype resulted from a T cell-intrinsic perturbation(More)
The cytokine interleukin (IL)-7 exerts essential roles in lymph node (LN) organogenesis and lymphocyte development and homeostasis. Recent studies have identified lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) as a major source of IL-7 in LNs. Here, we report that LECs not only produce IL-7, but also express the IL-7 receptor chains IL-7Rα and CD132. Stimulation with(More)
The immune system relies on homeostatic mechanisms in order to adapt to the changing requirements encountered during steady-state existence and activation by antigen. For T cells, this involves maintenance of a diverse repertoire of naïve cells, rapid elimination of effector cells after pathogen clearance, and long-term survival of memory cells. The(More)
Chemokines are key molecules involved in the migration and homeostasis of immune cells. However, also tumor cells use chemokine signals for different processes such as tumor progression and metastasis. It is thus unclear whether chemokines, through their immunostimulatory roles, contribute to the repression of tumor cells by tumor immunosurveillance or(More)
T cell activation can be profoundly altered by coinhibitory and costimulatory molecules. B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) is a recently identified inhibitory Ig superfamily cell surface protein found on lymphocytes and APC. In this study we analyze the effects of an agonistic anti-BTLA mAb, PK18, on TCR-mediated T cell activation. Unlike many other(More)