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In this study we describe a measurement method which closely approximates in vivo retinal thickness. Using this method we examined the laminar organisation of vascular and avascular retinae from placental and marsupial mammals. Thickness measurements on retinal wholemounts show that the avascular retinae of the placental guinea pig (140 microns) and the(More)
Respiratory afferent stimulation can elicit increases in respiratory motor output that outlast the period of stimulation by seconds to minutes [short-term potentiation (STP)]. This study examined the potential contribution of spinal mechanisms to STP in anesthetized, vagotomized, paralyzed rats. After C(1) spinal cord transection, stimulus trains (100 Hz,(More)
We tested the hypothesis that hypothalamic nuclei involved in thermoregulatory control could represent a site of integration of the metabolic and ventilatory response to cold and hypoxia. Electrolytic lesions were performed bilaterally under stereotaxic guide, either within the anterior or posterior hypothalamic areas of adult rats. One week later, oxygen(More)
The representation of facial muscle groups in the facial nucleus of rat was examined by retrograde transport of HRP. Motoneurons supplying muscle groups are arranged in longitudinal columns. Those supplying nasolabial muscles are located in the lateral and ventral intermediate segments, posterior auricular muscles in a medial column, platysma in an(More)
We examined the respiratory activity of the genioglossus, sternothyroid, and sternohyoid muscles of the rat during nonrapid eye movement (non-REM) and REM sleep. Each animal carried implanted electrodes for recording the integrated EMG activity of respiratory muscles, the postural tone (EMG), and electrocortical activity (polygraphic identification of(More)
The characteristics of GABAergic inhibitory modulation of respiratory bulbospinal neuronal activity and short-term potentiation (STP) of phrenic motoneuronal activity were studied. Extracellular unit recording and picoejection techniques in anesthetized dogs showed that both the spontaneous rhythmic and reflexly induced discharge patterns of inspiratory (I)(More)
Membrane capacity was measured as a function of fibre diameter in mammalian skeletal muscle fibres under normal conditions and under conditions designed to reduce the membrane chloride conductance, i.e. in solutions in which chloride ions were replaced by sulphate or methylsulphate ions, or in normal Krebs solutions containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid(More)
Horseradish peroxidase was injected into the medial and lateral columns of the facial nucleus of the rat. Following medial injections, cells were labelled by retrograde transport in the ipsilateral spinal trigeminal nucleus (caudalis) both medial vestibular nuclei, contralateral midbrain reticular formation and nucleus of the lateral lemniscus. The(More)