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Language processing in context requires more than merely comprehending words and sentences. Important subprocesses are inferences for bridging successive utterances, the use of background knowledge and discourse context, and pragmatic interpretations. The functional neuroanatomy of these text comprehension processes has only recently been investigated.(More)
An important requirement for vision is to identify interesting and relevant regions of the environment for further processing. Some models assume that salient locations from a visual scene are encoded in a dedicated spatial saliency map [1, 2]. Then, a winner-take-all (WTA) mechanism [1, 2] is often believed to threshold the graded saliency representation(More)
Visual stimuli can "pop out" if they are different to their background. There has been considerable debate as to the role of primary visual cortex (V1) versus higher visual areas (esp. V4) in pop-out processing. Here we parametrically modulated the relative orientation of stimuli and their backgrounds to investigate the neural correlates of pop-out in(More)
Saliency is a measure that describes how attention is guided by local stimulus properties. Some hypotheses assign its computation to specific topographically organized areas of early human visual cortex. However, in most stimuli, saliency is correlated with luminance contrast, which in turn is known to correlate with activity in these early areas. Thus, any(More)
Human perception depends heavily on the quality of sensory information. When objects are hard to see we often believe ourselves to be purely guessing. Here we investigated whether such guesses use brain networks involved in perceptual decision making or independent networks. We used a combination of fMRI and pattern classification to test how visibility(More)
Sustained, long-term cognitive workload is associated with variations and decrements in performance. Such fluctuations in vigilance can be a risk factor especially during dangerous attention demanding activities. Functional MRI studies have shown that attentional performance is correlated with BOLD-signals, especially in parietal and prefrontal cortical(More)
When facing perceptual choices under challenging conditions we might believe to be purely guessing. But which brain regions determine the outcome of our guesses? One possibility is that higher-level, domain-general brain regions might help break the symmetry between equal-appearing choices. Here we directly investigated whether perceptual guesses share(More)
For successful communication, conversational partners need to estimate each other's current knowledge state. Nonverbal facial and bodily cues can reveal relevant information about how confident a speaker is about what they are saying. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we aimed to identify brain regions that encode how confident a speaker is(More)
The advent of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of brain function 20 years ago has provided a new methodology for non-invasive measurement of brain function that is now widely used in cognitive neuroscience. Traditionally, fMRI data has been analyzed looking for overall activity changes in brain regions in response to a stimulus or a cognitive(More)
In a series of three human neuroimaging studies we recently identified prefrontal and parietal brain signals that predict a person's upcoming " free " choice up to several seconds before a person believes to be making up their mind (Soon et al., 2008, 2013; Bode et al., 2011). These findings were based on a combination of functional magnetic resonance(More)