Carroll-Ann Trotman

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OBJECTIVE (1) To determine which facial landmarks show the greatest movement during specific facial animations and (2) to determine the sensitivity of our instrument in using these landmarks to detect putatively abnormal facial movements. DESIGN Movements of an array of skin-based landmarks on five healthy human subjects (2 men and 3 women; mean age, 27.6(More)
The objective of this study was two-fold: (1) to explore the suitability of a novel modified Procrustes fit method to adjust data for head motion during instructed facial movements, and (2) to compare the adjusted data among repaired unilateral (n = 4) and bilateral (n = 5) cleft lip and palate patients and noncleft control subjects (n = 50). Using a(More)
The decision for lip revision surgery in patients with repaired cleft lip/palate is based on surgeons' subjective evaluation of lip disability. An objective evaluation would be highly beneficial for the assessment of surgical outcomes. In this study, the effects of lip revision on circumoral movements were objectively quantified. The hypothesis was that lip(More)
OBJECTIVE The assessment of facial mobility is a key element in the treatment of patients with facial motor deficits. In this study, we explored the utility of a three-dimensional tracking system in the measurement of facial movements. METHODS AND RESULTS First, the three-dimensional movement of potentially stable facial soft-tissue, headcap, and dental(More)
Sixty-seven consecutive patients over the age of 14 with either unilateral (n = 38) cleft lip and palate or bilateral (n = 29) cleft lip and palate seen over a 15-month period at the University of Michigan Craniofacial Program were reviewed to determine the total number of surgical procedures performed over the course of treatment. The demographics of the(More)
This study determined the accuracy of a camera system capable of recording three-dimensional facial images. A Rainbow 3D Camera Model 250 system (Genex Technologies Inc, Kensington, Md) was used to capture images of specific models: (1) a precalibrated precision model and (2) a mannequin model that served to simulate the human condition. To assess the(More)
Surgical correction of clefts of the soft palate leads to varying degrees of normal function although the repair itself is successful. Explanations for this include structural abnormalities of the muscles. Previous studies have focused primarily on gross anatomical features of late fetal and postnatal cleft palate musculature; however, infrequent reference(More)
OBJECTIVE This study demonstrates a method of quantifying facial movements based on distortions of the skin surface. DESIGN Landmarks were identified on the faces of five healthy human subjects (2 men and 3 women; mean age, 27.6 years; range, 26 to 29 years), and the distortions were characterized by changes in the separation between 20 pairs of landmark(More)
The aim of this study was to quantify facial movements in a sample of normal adults and to investigate the influence of sex and facial shape on these movements. The study sample consisted of 50 healthy adult subjects, 25 males and 25 females (age: mean = 27.3 years; range = 23-39 years). A video-based tracking system was used to track small-diameter(More)
The purpose of this study was to compare the amplitude of facial motion obtained using three-dimensional (3-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) methods. The amplitude of motion of fifteen facial landmarks during five maximal animations (smile, lip-purse, grimace, eye closure, and cheek-puff) was quantified in 3-D and 2-D using a video-based system. Results showed(More)