Carrol L. Gamble

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BACKGROUND Valproate is widely accepted as a drug of first choice for patients with generalised onset seizures, and its broad spectrum of efficacy means it is recommended for patients with seizures that are difficult to classify. Lamotrigine and topiramate are also thought to possess broad spectrum activity. The SANAD study aimed to compare the longer-term(More)
BACKGROUND Carbamazepine is widely accepted as a drug of first choice for patients with partial onset seizures. Several newer drugs possess efficacy against these seizure types but previous randomised controlled trials have failed to inform a choice between these drugs. We aimed to assess efficacy with regards to longer-term outcomes, quality of life, and(More)
BACKGROUND The increased use of meta-analysis in systematic reviews of healthcare interventions has highlighted several types of bias that can arise during the completion of a randomised controlled trial. Study publication bias has been recognised as a potential threat to the validity of meta-analysis and can make the readily available evidence unreliable(More)
BACKGROUND The relative risks and benefits of starting or withholding antiepileptic drug treatment in patients with few or infrequent seizures are unclear. We sought to compare policies of immediate versus deferred treatment in such patients and to assess the effects of these policies on short-term recurrence and long-term outcomes. METHODS We undertook(More)
BACKGROUND Protection from malaria with insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) during pregnancy is widely advocated, but evidence of benefit has been inconsistent. We undertook a systematic review of randomised trials. METHODS AND FINDINGS Three cluster-randomised and two individually randomised trials met the inclusion criteria; four from Africa (n = 6,418)(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the prevalence of outcome reporting bias-the selection for publication of a subset of the original recorded outcome variables on the basis of the results-and its impact on Cochrane reviews. DESIGN A nine point classification system for missing outcome data in randomised trials was developed and applied to the trials assessed in a(More)
BACKGROUND Malaria in pregnancy is associated with adverse consequences for mother and fetus. Protection with insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) during pregnancy is widely advocated, but evidence of their benefit has been inconsistent. OBJECTIVES To compare the impact of ITNs with no nets or untreated nets on preventing malaria in pregnancy. SEARCH(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of central venous catheters (CVCs) treated with anti-infective agents in preventing catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI). DATA SOURCES Major electronic databases were searched from 1985 to August 2005. REVIEW METHODS The systematic clinical and economic reviews were(More)
PURPOSE For many people with epilepsy, the continuing social reality of their condition is as a stigma, thus representing a source of much private grief. To understand fully the nature of epilepsy stigma, it is important to examine attitudes and beliefs of not just the "targets" but also of the "perceivers" of stigma. Perceivers may hold erroneous beliefs(More)
BACKGROUND The increased use of meta-analysis in systematic reviews of healthcare interventions has highlighted several types of bias that can arise during the completion of a randomised controlled trial. Study publication bias and outcome reporting bias have been recognised as a potential threat to the validity of meta-analysis and can make the readily(More)