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Deciphering the evolution of global climate from the end of the Last Glacial Maximum approximately 19 ka to the early Holocene 11 ka presents an outstanding opportunity for understanding the transient response of Earth's climate system to external and internal forcings. During this interval of global warming, the decay of ice sheets caused global mean sea(More)
The gradient of air temperature with elevation (the temperature lapse rate) in the tropics is predicted to become less steep during the coming century as surface temperature rises, enhancing the threat of warming in high-mountain environments. However, the sensitivity of the lapse rate to climate change is uncertain because of poor constraints on(More)
Reducing uncertainty in global temperature reconstructions of the past millennium remains the key issue in applying this record to society's pressing climate change problem. Reconstructions are collaborative, built on the research of hundreds of scientists who apply their diverse scientific expertise and field and laboratory skill to create the individual(More)
Periodic checks of peak flow meter (PFM) stability is essential to ensure meaningful application even when the PFMs are only used to measure the relative changes in patient peak flow rate. Calibration of PFMs becomes necessary, however, when peak flow readings are to be interpreted precisely. Techniques and flow systems which offer ease and accuracy in(More)
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