Carrie Anne Batten

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Viral diseases of farm animals, rather than being a diminishing problem across the world, are now appearing with regularity in areas where they have never been seen before. Across the developing world, viral pathogens such as peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) place a huge disease burden on agriculture, in particular affecting small ruminant production(More)
The outer-coat proteins, VP2 and VP5, of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) are important for host cell binding during the initiation of infection. They are also known to determine virus serotype. This study presents a complete genetic and phylogenetic analysis of these proteins (and the genes that code for them) to allow comparison of the(More)
During 2006 the first outbreak of bluetongue ever recorded in northern Europe started in Belgium and the Netherlands, spreading to Luxemburg, Germany and north-east France. The virus overwintered (2006-2007) reappearing during May-June 2007 with greatly increased severity in affected areas, spreading further into Germany and France, reaching Denmark,(More)
Since 1998, multiple strains of bluetongue virus (BTV), belonging to six different serotypes (types 1, 2, 4, 8, 9 and 16) have caused outbreaks of disease in Europe, causing one of the largest epizootics of bluetongue ever recorded, with the deaths of >1.8 million animals (mainly sheep). The persistence and continuing spread of BTV in Europe and elsewhere(More)
In mid September 2008, clinical signs of bluetongue (particularly coronitis) were observed in cows on three different farms in eastern Netherlands (Luttenberg, Heeten, and Barchem), two of which had been vaccinated with an inactivated BTV-8 vaccine (during May-June 2008). Bluetongue virus (BTV) infection was also detected on a fourth farm (Oldenzaal) in the(More)
The bovine enteric caliciviruses Bo/Jena/1980/DE and Bo/Newbury2/1976/UK represent two distinct genotypes within a new genogroup, genogroup III, in the genus Norovirus of the family Caliciviridae. In the present study, the antigenic relatedness of these two genotypes was determined for the first time to enable the development of tests to detect and(More)
Four poll Dorset sheep and four Holstein-Friesian cattle were infected with the northern European strain of bluetongue virus (BTV), BTV-8, to assess its pathogenicity in UK breeds. The time course of infection was monitored in both species by using real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR), conventional RT-PCR and serology. Two of the sheep developed(More)
Epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) infects wild ruminants, causing a frequently fatal haemorrhagic disease. However, it can also cause bluetongue-like disease in cattle, involving significant levels of morbidity and mortality, highlighting a need for more rapid and reliable diagnostic assays. EHDV outer-capsid protein VP2 (encoded by genome-segment(More)