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BACKGROUND Circulating concentrations of the cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and chemokines monocyte chemotatic protein 1 (MCP-1)/CCL2 and growth-regulator oncogene α (GROα)/chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 1 are commonly increased in cancer patients and they are increasingly recognised as important promoters, via(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) increases intestinal epithelial cell shedding and apoptosis, potentially challenging the barrier between the gastrointestinal lumen and internal tissues. We investigated the mechanism of tight junction remodeling and barrier maintenance as well as the roles of cytoskeletal regulatory molecules during TNF-induced(More)
OBJECTIVES Loss of intestinal barrier function plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Shedding of intestinal epithelial cells is a potential cause of barrier loss during inflammation. The objectives of the study were (1) to determine whether cell shedding and barrier loss in humans can be detected by confocal(More)
The gut barrier, composed of a single layer of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) held together by tight junctions, prevents the entrance of harmful microorganisms, antigens and toxins from the gut lumen into the blood. Small intestinal homeostasis is normally maintained by the rate of shedding of senescent enterocytes from the villus tip exactly matching(More)
PURPOSE Cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6 and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) are important metastasis promoters. This study has investigated the functional significance of the increased circulation of galectin-3, a common feature in patients with cancer and in particular those with metastasis, on cytokine secretion from the blood vascular(More)
Gastric adenocarcinoma is the fifth most common cancer and third most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. The majority of these cancers develop in genetically susceptible individuals who are chronically infected with the Gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori. Often these individuals have also been exposed to certain environmental(More)
Helicobacter infection causes a chronic superficial gastritis that in some cases progresses via atrophic gastritis to adenocarcinoma. Proapoptotic bak has been shown to regulate radiation-induced apoptosis in the stomach and colon and also susceptibility to colorectal carcinogenesis in vivo. Therefore we investigated the gastric mucosal pathology following(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Many colon cancers produce the hormone progastrin, which signals via autocrine and paracrine pathways to promote tumor growth. Transgenic mice that produce high circulating levels of progastrin (hGAS) have increased proliferation of colonic epithelial cells and are more susceptible to colon carcinogenesis than control mice. We investigated(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS A number of growth factors affect the regeneration of intestinal epithelia following injury, but the effects of amidated gastrin have not previously been assessed. We therefore investigated the effects of gastrin on intestinal regeneration following a range of stimuli. METHODS Intestinal crypt regeneration was assessed in transgenic mice(More)
Peanut agglutinin (PNA), which accounts for ~0.15% of the weight of the common peanut, is a carbohydrate-binding protein that binds the oncofoetal Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) disaccharide (galactoseβ1,3N-acetylgalactosamineα-) that is overexpressed by ~90% of human cancers. Previous studies have shown that PNA is highly resistant to cooking and digestion and(More)