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Considerable discussion surrounds the potential role of anoxygenic phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria in both the genesis of Banded Iron Formations (BIFs) and early marine productivity. However, anoxygenic phototrophs have yet to be identified in modern environments with comparable chemistry and physical structure to the ancient Fe(II)-rich(More)
Heterotrophic Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were isolated from Lake Matano, Indonesia, a stratified, ferruginous (iron-rich), ultra-oligotrophic lake with phosphate concentrations below 50 nM. Here, we describe the growth of eight strains of heterotrophic bacteria on a variety of soluble and insoluble sources of phosphorus. When transferred to medium(More)
A rise in the oxygen content of the atmosphere and oceans is one of the most popular explanations for the relatively late and abrupt appearance of animal life on Earth. In this scenario, Earth's surface environment failed to meet the high oxygen requirements of animals up until the middle to late Neoproterozoic Era (850-542 million years ago), when oxygen(More)
In the low-oxygen Archean world (>2400 million years ago), seawater sulfate concentrations were much lower than today, yet open questions frustrate the translation of modern measurements of sulfur isotope fractionations into estimates of Archean seawater sulfate concentrations. In the water column of Lake Matano, Indonesia, a low-sulfate analog for the(More)
It is has been assumed for over half a century that the earliest animals were obligate aerobes with relatively high oxygen requirements. However, the conserved biochemistry and widespread phylogenetic distribution of anaerobic energy metabolism in animals suggests a deep ancestral possession of the genes and enzymes necessary for a facultative anaerobic(More)
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