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Recently, there has been strong interest in the development of imaging techniques to quantify axonal and myelin pathology in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Optic neuritis, a condition characterised by inflammatory demyelination of the optic nerve, is one of the commonest sites of MS relapse, and exhibits similar pathological alterations to MS(More)
Past sun exposure is linked to a wide range of disease outcomes but is difficult to measure accurately. Silicone skin casts measure skin damage, but some studies show that age rather than sun exposure is the most important determinant of cast score. We examined skin damage scores from silicone casts of the back of the hand in a large adult sample (n = 534)(More)
OBJECTIVE To perform a 1-stage meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility and to explore functional consequences of new susceptibility loci. METHODS We synthesized 7 MS GWAS. Each data set was imputed using HapMap phase II, and a per single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) meta-analysis was performed(More)
In order to resolve a multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility locus that we had identified in earlier work at the telomeric end of the HLA complex, we genotyped another 34 microsatellite markers (47 in total) across the class I/extended class I region in 166 Tasmanian MS case and 104 control families (D6S299-D6S265). Extended MS susceptibility haplotypes, up(More)
Increasing prevalence and variable geographic patterns of occurrence of multiple sclerosis suggest an environmental role in causation. There are few descriptive, population-level, data on whether such variability applies to first demyelinating events (FDEs). We recruited 216 adults (18-59 years), with a FDE between 1 November 2003 and 31 December 2006 in a(More)
Observations of increasing allergy prevalence with decreasing distance from the Equator and positive associations with ambient ultraviolet radiation have contributed to a growing interest in the possible role of vitamin D in the etiology of allergy. The aims of this study were to describe any latitudinal variation in the prevalence of childhood allergy in(More)
Trans-synaptic degeneration could exacerbate neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS). We aimed to assess whether anterograde trans-synaptic degeneration could be identified in the primary visual pathway in vivo. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to assess the optic radiations in 15 patients with previous optic nerve inflammation and 9 healthy(More)
Vitamin D deficiency is common and implicated in risk of several human diseases. Evidence on the relative quantitative contribution of environmental, genetic and phenotypic factors to vitamin D status (assessed by the serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25(OH)D) in free-living populations is sparse. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 494(More)
INTRODUCTION Lifestyle factors prior to a first clinical demyelinating event (FCD), a disorder often preceding the development of clinically definite multiple sclerosis (MS), have not previously been examined in detail. Past tobacco smoking has been consistently associated with MS. METHODS This was a multicentre incident case-control study. Cases (n =(More)
INTRODUCTION Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating disease that causes significant morbidity within a young demographic. Diagnostic guidelines for MS have evolved, and imaging has played an increasingly important role in diagnosis over the last two decades. For imaging to contribute to diagnosis in a meaningful way, it must be reproducible. Consensus(More)