Carolyn Westhoff

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With the advent of high-frequency transvaginal ultrasonography, new opportunities are presented to better define ovarian lesions. The goal of this study was to develop a scoring system using transvaginal sonographic characterization of pelvic/ovarian lesions. Our purpose was to maximize the discrimination between benign and malignant entities. Transvaginal(More)
BACKGROUND Although studies have found elevated risks of certain cancers linked to infertility, the underlying reasons remain unclear. METHODS In a retrospective cohort study of 12,193 U.S. women evaluated for infertility between 1965 and 1988, 581 cases of cancer were identified through 1999. We used standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) to compare cancer(More)
BACKGROUND Despite the recognized role of hormones in the aetiology of breast cancer, there has been little evaluation of hormonal preparations used to treat infertility. METHODS A retrospective cohort study of 12,193 women evaluated for infertility between 1965 and 1988 at five clinical sites identified 292 in situ and invasive breast cancers in(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the risk of ovarian cancer as related to underlying causes of infertility. DESIGN Retrospective observational cohort study. SETTING Five large reproductive endocrinology practices. PATIENT(S) A total of 12,193 women evaluated for infertility between 1965 and 1988. INTERVENTION(S) None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S) Ovarian cancer(More)
Of 17 032 women taking part in the Oxford Family Planning Association contraceptive study, 4104 stopped using a birth control method to plan a pregnancy on a total of 6199 occasions. The influence of various factors on fertility in these women was assessed by measuring the time taken to give birth to a child. An appreciable inverse relation was observed(More)
OBJECTIVE This study was undertaken to evaluate melanoma, thyroid, colon, and cervical cancer risks after clomiphene or gonadotropins. STUDY DESIGN Retrospective cohort of 8422 women (155,527 women-years) evaluated for infertility (1965-1988). Through 1999, cancers were ascertained by questionnaire, cancer and death registries. Poisson regression(More)
BACKGROUND Many women discontinue their use of hormonal contraception, and even those who continue so may have difficulty using oral contraceptive pills consistently. New delivery systems, including the vaginal ring, may be easier to use, but user acceptability and satisfaction with these new methods may be affected by women's experience with their bodies.(More)
The cesarean birth rate has continued to climb despite efforts to counteract it. A major reason for this rise is the practice of elective repeat cesarean. We conducted a meta-analysis that included 31 studies with a total of 11,417 trials of labor to evaluate the association between birth route after a cesarean and morbidity and mortality for the mother and(More)
BACKGROUND Misoprostol is increasingly used to treat women who have a failed pregnancy in the first trimester. We assessed the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of this treatment in a large, randomized trial. METHODS A total of 652 women with a first-trimester pregnancy failure (anembryonic gestation, embryonic or fetal death, or incomplete or(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the long-term effects of ovulation-stimulating drugs on the risk of ovarian cancer. METHODS A retrospective cohort study of 12,193 eligible study subjects (median age 30 years) who were evaluated for infertility during the period of 1965-1988 at 5 clinical sites identified 45 subsequent ovarian cancers in follow-up through 1999.(More)