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The use of structured frameworks can be invaluable in promoting harmonization in the assessment of chemical risk. IPCS has therefore updated and extended its mode of action (MOA) framework for cancer to address the issue of human relevance of a carcinogenic response observed in an experimental study. The first stage is to determine whether it is possible to(More)
The World Health Organization/International Programme on Chemical Safety mode of action/human relevance framework has been updated to reflect the experience acquired in its application and extend its utility to emerging areas in toxicity testing and non-testing methods. The underlying principles have not changed, but the framework's scope has been extended(More)
Structured frameworks are extremely useful in promoting transparent, harmonized approaches to the risk assessment of chemicals. One area where this has been particularly successful is in the analysis of modes of action (MOAs) for chemical carcinogens in experimental animals and their relevance to humans. The International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)(More)
BACKGROUND Continuous exposure to many chemicals, including through air, water, food, or other media and products results in health impacts which have been well assessed, however little is known about the total disease burden related to chemicals. This is important to know for overall policy actions and priorities. In this article the known burden related(More)
This paper describes a framework for the risk assessment of combined exposure to multiple chemicals based on and developed subsequent to the World Health Organization/International Programme on Chemical Safety Workshop on Aggregate/Cumulative Risk Assessment (Combined Exposures to Multiple Chemicals) held in 2007. The framework is designed to aid risk(More)
An international workshop was held in 2006 to evaluate experimental techniques for hazard identification and hazard characterization of sensitizing agents in terms of their ability to produce data, including dose-response information, to inform risk assessment. Human testing to identify skin sensitizers is discouraged for ethical reasons. Animal-free(More)
The European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC), the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Research Foundation (RF), and the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) hosted a workshop in November 2009 to review current practice in the application of mode of action (MOA) considerations in chemical risk(More)
Since the publication of the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) Harmonized Scheme for Mutagenicity Testing, there have been a number of publications addressing test strategies for mutagenicity. Safety assessments of substances with regard to genotoxicity are generally based on a combination of tests to assess effects on three major end points(More)
This article is a report on the Fourth Berlin Workshop on Terminology in Developmental Toxicology, which was held in April 2002. The workshop is part of an international project in the field of harmonization of terminology in developmental toxicology supported by IPCS. The goal of the Harmonization Project is to ensure better chemical risk assessment. The(More)
In this paper, we summarize exposure-related issues to consider in determining the most appropriate age ranges and life stages for risk assessment. We then propose a harmonized set of age bins for monitoring and assessing risks from exposures to chemicals for global use. The focus is on preconception through adolescence, though the approach should be(More)