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BACKGROUND In January 2008, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began a nationwide investigation of severe adverse reactions that were first detected in a single hemodialysis facility. Preliminary findings suggested that heparin was a possible cause of the reactions. METHODS Information on clinical manifestations and on exposure was collected(More)
Following are the Executive Summary, Summary of Recommendations , and Implementation and Audit sections. The references for the entire guideline are available in the online edition of the journal. The entire guideline and the full citation apparatus have been previously published by HICPAC and are available at This guideline updates and expands the original(More)
(See the commentary by Moro, on pages 978-980 .) Infection surveillance definitions for long-term care facilities (ie, the McGeer Criteria) have not been updated since 1991. An expert consensus panel modified these definitions on the basis of a structured review of the literature. Significant changes were made to the criteria defining urinary tract and(More)
Haemophagocytic syndrome or haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a rare disease that is often fatal despite treatment. Haemophagocytic syndrome is caused by a dysregulation in natural killer T-cell function, resulting in activation and proliferation of lymphocytes or histiocytes with uncontrolled haemophagocytosis and cytokine overproduction. The syndrome(More)
The dramatic changes in the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) during recent years, with increases in incidence and severity of disease in several countries, have made CDI a global public health challenge. Increases in CDI incidence have been largely attributed to the emergence of a previously rare and more virulent strain, BI/NAP1/027.(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate an outbreak of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and determine interventions to interrupt transmission. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS Epidemiologic investigation of an outbreak of NDM-producing CRE among patients at a Colorado acute care hospital. METHODS Case patients(More)
OBJECTIVE To review the effect of interventions, including a complete restriction in the use of fluoroquinolones (FQs), used to control an outbreak of hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection (HO-CDI) caused primarily by the epidemic North American pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type 1 strain. DESIGN Retrospective cohort and case-control study of(More)
Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) is increasingly being adopted for diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Data from 3 states conducting population-based CDI surveillance showed increases ranging from 43% to 67% in CDI incidence attributable to changing from toxin enzyme immunoassays to NAAT. CDI surveillance requires adjustment for(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate national data on healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), device utilization, and antimicrobial resistance in long-term acute care hospitals (LTACHs). DESIGN AND SETTING Comparison of data from LTACHs and from medical and medical-surgical intensive care units (ICUs) in short-stay acute care hospitals reporting to the National(More)