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Restraint and seclusion (R/S) have been used in many countries and across service sectors for centuries. With the recent and increasing recognition of the harm associated with these procedures, efforts have been made to reduce and prevent R/S. Following a scathing media exposé in 1998 and congressional scrutiny, the United States began a national effort to(More)
Burn pain can cause psychologic and functional difficulties, and is difficult to predict from wound depth. The initial painful stimulation of nerve endings by the burn with continued painful stimuli result in peripheral and central mechanisms causing amplification of painful stimuli, and the development of chronic pain syndromes that can be difficult to(More)
Burn dressing changes require profound analgesia for a short duration. This study aimed to determine whether an operator-adjusted target-controlled infusion of alfentanil could provide effective analgesia for burn dressing changes. Ten patients with a burn of between 5 and 50% of body surface area were studied. Pain scoring was performed before, during and(More)
In order to prescribe appropriate analgesia for burns dressing changes the pain experienced by 30 burned patients during this procedure was recorded. Patients received analgesia prior to their dressing changes according to the current protocol in the burns unit. During the same period the medical and nursing staff in the unit who were involved in(More)
This study was designed to measure ischaemic pain during and after infusion of adenosine. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, eight ASA 1 male volunteers received infusion of adenosine 100 micrograms kg-1 min-1 or placebo for 10 min. This was repeated 1 week later with the alternate infusion. Pain measurements were made during(More)
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