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During apoptosis, the mitochondrial network fragments. Using short hairpin RNAs for RNA interference, we manipulated the expression levels of the proteins hFis1, Drp1, and Opa1 that are involved in mitochondrial fission and fusion in mammalian cells, and we characterized their functions in mitochondrial morphology and apoptosis. Down-regulation of hFis1(More)
Quantitative imaging and photobleaching were used to measure ER/Golgi recycling of GFP-tagged Golgi proteins in interphase cells and to monitor the dissolution and reformation of the Golgi during mitosis. In interphase, recycling occurred every 1.5 hr, and blocking ER egress trapped cycling Golgi enzymes in the ER with loss of Golgi structure. In mitosis,(More)
The mechanism by which Golgi membrane proteins are retained within the Golgi complex in the midst of a continuous flow of protein and lipid is not yet understood. The diffusional mobilities of mammalian Golgi membrane proteins fused with green fluorescent protein from Aequorea victoria were measured in living HeLa cells with the fluorescence photobleaching(More)
Bax, a member of the Bcl-2 protein family, accelerates apoptosis by an unknown mechanism. Bax has been recently reported to be an integral membrane protein associated with organelles or bound to organelles by Bcl-2 or a soluble protein found in the cytosol. To explore Bcl-2 family member localization in living cells, the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was(More)
The Golgi complex is a dynamic organelle engaged in both secretory and retrograde membrane traffic. Here, we use green fluorescent protein-Golgi protein chimeras to study Golgi morphology in vivo. In untreated cells, membrane tubules were a ubiquitous, prominent feature of the Golgi complex, serving both to interconnect adjacent Golgi elements and to carry(More)
Lysosomes are the stomachs of the cell-terminal organelles on the endocytic pathway where internalized macromolecules are degraded. Containing a wide range of hydrolytic enzymes, lysosomes depend on maintaining acidic luminal pH values for efficient function. Although acidification is mediated by a V-type proton ATPase, a parallel anion pathway is essential(More)
Studies with live cells demonstrate that agonist and antagonist rapidly (within minutes) modulate the subnuclear dynamics of estrogen receptor alpha (ER) and steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC-1). A functional cyan fluorescent protein (CFP)-tagged lac repressor-ER chimera (CFP-LacER) was used in live cells to discretely immobilize ER on stably integrated(More)
Mice deficient in src and fyn or src and yes move and breathe poorly and die perinatally, consistent with defects in neuromuscular function. Src and Fyn are associated with acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) in muscle cells, and Src and Yes can act downstream of ErbB2, suggesting roles for Src family kinases in signaling pathways regulating neuromuscular(More)
Here we report the use of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) to examine the intranuclear dynamics of fluorescent oestrogen receptor-alpha (ER). After bleaching, unliganded ER exhibits high mobility (recovery t1/2 < 1 s). Agonist (oestradiol; E2) or partial antagonist (4-hydroxytamoxifen) slows ER recovery (t1/2 approximately 5-6 s), whereas(More)
We find that Bax, a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, translocates to discrete foci on mitochondria during the initial stages of apoptosis, which subsequently become mitochondrial scission sites. A dominant negative mutant of Drp1, Drp1K38A, inhibits apoptotic scission of mitochondria, but does not inhibit Bax translocation or coalescence into foci.(More)