Carolyn E. Banister

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Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with poor fetal outcome and aberrant miRNA expression is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. In 25 human placentas, we analyzed the expression of four candidate miRNA previously implicated in growth and developmental processes: miR-16, miR-21, miR-146a, and miR-182, and used three(More)
The placenta acts not only as a conduit of nutrient and waste exchange between mother and developing fetus, but also functions as a regulator of the intrauterine environment. Recent work has identified changes in the expression of candidate genes, often through epigenetic alteration, which alter the placenta's function and impact fetal growth. In this(More)
BACKGROUND Fetal programming describes the theory linking environmental conditions during embryonic and fetal development with risk of diseases later in life. Environmental insults in utero may lead to changes in epigenetic mechanisms potentially affecting fetal development. OBJECTIVES We examined associations between in utero exposures, infant growth,(More)
A mutational analysis of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) gene family in human melanoma identified somatic mutations in 23% of melanomas. Five mutations in one of the most commonly mutated genes, MMP8, reduced MMP enzyme activity. Expression of wild-type but not mutant MMP8 in human melanoma cells inhibited growth on soft agar in vitro and tumor formation(More)
Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is involved in melanocyte cell development, pigmentation and neoplasia. To determine whether MITF is somatically mutated in melanoma, we compared the sequence of MITF from primary and metastatic lesions to patient-matched normal DNA. In the 50 metastatic melanoma tumor lines analysed, we discovered four(More)
Birthweight has been associated with a number of health outcomes throughout life. Crucial to proper infant growth and development is the placenta, and alterations to placental gene function may reflect differences in the intrauterine environment which functionally contribute to infant growth and may ultimately affect the child's health. To examine if(More)
BACKGROUND Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates are higher in African Americans than in European Americans (white, non-Hispanic of European ancestry). The reasons for this disparity are not known. METHODS We recruited a population-based longitudinal cohort of 326 European American and 113 African American female college freshmen in Columbia,(More)
Retinoblastomas occur as the consequence of inactivation of the tumor suppressor retinoblastoma protein (pRb), classically upon biallelic inactivation of the RB1 gene locus. Recently, human papillomavirus (HPV) genomic DNA has been detected in retinoblastomas. To investigate the possibility that oncoproteins encoded by pRb-inactivating DNA tumor viruses(More)
BACKGROUND Cervical cancer, a rare outcome of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, disproportionately affects African American women, who are about twice more likely than European American women to die of the disease. Most cervical HPV infections clear in about one year. However, in some women HPV persists, posing a greater risk for cervical(More)
BACKGROUND Human papillomavirus (HPV) initiates cervical cancer, and continuous expression of HPV oncogenes E6 and E7 is thought to be necessary to maintain malignant growth. Current therapies target proliferating cells, rather than specific pathways, and most experimental therapies specifically target E6/E7. We investigated the presence and expression of(More)