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Kinetochores are proteinaceous assemblies that mediate the interaction of chromosomes with the mitotic spindle. The 180 kDa Ndc80 complex is a direct point of contact between kinetochores and microtubules. Its four subunits contain coiled coils and form an elongated rod structure with functional globular domains at either end. We crystallized an engineered(More)
Growing microtubule ends serve as transient binding platforms for essential proteins that regulate microtubule dynamics and their interactions with cellular substructures. End-binding proteins (EBs) autonomously recognize an extended region at growing microtubule ends with unknown structural characteristics and then recruit other factors to the dynamic end(More)
Whereas most kinesins motor along microtubules, KinI kinesins are microtubule depolymerizing machines. Surprisingly, we found that a KinI fragment consisting of only the motor core is capable of ATP-dependent depolymerization. The motor binds along microtubules in all nucleotide states, but in the presence of AMPPNP, microtubule depolymerization also(More)
An expanding collection of proteins localises to microtubule ends to regulate cytoskeletal dynamics and architecture by unknown molecular mechanisms. Electron microscopy is invaluable for studying microtubule structure, but because microtubule ends are heterogeneous, their structures are difficult to determine. We therefore investigated whether tubulin(More)
Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) are essential for regulating and organizing cellular microtubules (MTs). However, our mechanistic understanding of MAP function is limited by a lack of detailed structural information. Using cryo-electron microscopy and single particle algorithms, we solved the 8 Å structure of doublecortin (DCX)-stabilized MTs.(More)
Kinesins are a superfamily of microtubule-based ATP-powered motors, important for multiple, essential cellular functions. How microtubule binding stimulates their ATPase and controls force generation is not understood. To address this fundamental question, we visualized microtubule-bound kinesin-1 and kinesin-3 motor domains at multiple steps in their(More)
Doublecortin (Dcx) defines a growing family of microtubule (MT)-associated proteins (MAPs) involved in neuronal migration and process outgrowth. We show that Dcx is essential for the function of Kif1a, a kinesin-3 motor protein that traffics synaptic vesicles. Neurons lacking Dcx and/or its structurally conserved paralogue, doublecortin-like kinase 1(More)
Members of the kinesin-8 motor class have the remarkable ability to both walk towards microtubule plus-ends and depolymerise these ends on arrival, thereby regulating microtubule length. To analyse how kinesin-8 multitasks, we studied the structure and function of the kinesin-8 motor domain. We determined the first crystal structure of a kinesin-8 and used(More)
Neurons undertake an amazing journey from the center of the developing mammalian brain to the outer layers of the cerebral cortex. Doublecortin, a component of the microtubule cytoskeleton, is essential in postmitotic neurons and was identified because its mutation disrupts human brain development. Doublecortin stabilizes microtubules and stimulates their(More)
The kinesin-13 class of motors catalyses microtubule depolymerisation by bending tubulins at microtubule ends. Depolymerisation activity is intrinsic to the kinesin-13 motor core but the activity of the core alone is very low compared with that of constructs that also contain a conserved neck sequence. The full-length dimeric motor is an efficient(More)