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Structural protein 4.1, first identified as a crucial 80-kD protein in the mature red cell membrane skeleton, is now known to be a diverse family of protein isoforms generated by complex alternative mRNA splicing, variable usage of translation initiation sites, and posttranslational modification. Protein 4.1 epitopes are detected at multiple intracellular(More)
We examined the spatial and temporal control of actin assembly in living Xenopus eggs. Within minutes of egg activation, dynamic actin-rich comet tails appeared on a subset of cytoplasmic vesicles that were enriched in protein kinase C (PKC), causing the vesicles to move through the cytoplasm. Actin comet tail formation in vivo was stimulated by the PKC(More)
The dorsal-ventral axis in frog embryos is specified during the first cell cycle, when the cortex rotates relative to the cytoplasmic core along parallel microtubules associated with the core. Cytoplasmic transfer experiments suggest that dorsal determinants are transported 90 degrees from the vegetal pole to the dorsal equator, even though the cortex(More)
Eggs of Xenopus laevis undergo a postfertilization cortical rotation that specifies the position of the dorso-ventral axis and activates a transplantable dorsal-determining activity in dorsal blastomeres by the 32-cell stage. There have heretofore been no reported dorso-ventral asymmetries in endogenous signaling proteins that may be involved in this(More)
To elucidate the potential role of localized components in the specification of the germ cell lineage we analyzed the composition of the germ plasm in Xenopus laevis oocytes and early embryos with respect to the vegetally-localized RNAs. We focused on Xlsirts, Xcat2, and Xwnt11 transcripts that are localized to the vegetal cortex through a region of the(More)
Examination of the subcellular localization of Dishevelled (Dsh) in fertilized Xenopus eggs revealed that Dsh is associated with vesicle-like organelles that are enriched on the prospective dorsal side of the embryo after cortical rotation. Dorsal enrichment of Dsh is blocked by UV irradiation of the vegetal pole, a treatment that inhibits development of(More)
The dorsoventral body axis in amphibian embryos is established by a rotation of the outer cortex relative to the inner cytoplasmic core. This cortical rotation depends on microtubules and is correlated with a parallel array of microtubules just inside the vegetal cortex. Since the parallel array moves with the inner cytoplasm and most of its microtubules(More)
We examined the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using X-ray tomography and demonstrate unique views of the internal structural organization of these cells at 60-nm resolution. Cryo X-ray tomography is a new imaging technique that generates three-dimensional (3-D) information of whole cells. In the energy range of X-rays used to examine cells, organic(More)
During meiotic maturation, the cortex of oocytes of Xenopus laevis undergoes structural reorganization, visualized in this study by freeze-fracture electron microscopy. In the full-grown but immature oocyte, annulate lamellae are dispersed throughout the subcortex of the egg, 5 to 20 micron from the plasma membrane. The annulate lamellae consist of(More)
Conventional organic fluorophores suffer from poor photo stability, narrow absorption spectra and broad emission spectra. Semiconductor nanocrystals, however, are highly photo-stable with broad absorption spectra and narrow size-tunable emission spectra. Recent advances in the synthesis of these materials have resulted in the generation of bright,(More)