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BACKGROUND & AIMS The vagus nerve negatively regulates macrophage cytokine production via the release of acetylcholine (ACh) and activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). In various models of intestinal inflammation, vagus nerve efferent stimulation ameliorates disease. Given the actively constrained cytokine responses of intestinal(More)
Increased esophageal sensitivity and impaired mucosal integrity have both been described in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease, but the relationship between hypersensitivity and mucosal integrity is unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate acid sensitivity in patients with erosive and nonerosive reflux disease and control subjects(More)
OBJECTIVES The esophageal mucosal integrity is impaired in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). We aimed to evaluate the effect of fluticasone propionate on inflammation and functional and structural markers of esophageal mucosal barrier integrity in adult patients with EoE. METHODS In this prospective study, we included 15 EoE patients (median(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Histologic analysis is used to distinguish patients with proton pump inhibitor-responsive eosinophilia (PPI-REE) from those with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). It is not clear whether these entities have different etiologies. Exposure to acid reflux can impair the integrity of the esophageal mucosal. We proposed that patients with EoE and(More)
OBJECTIVE Smoking is generally accepted as a factor that affects the disease course in inflammatory bowel disease patients. Whether these effects can be contributed to the immunomodulatory effects of nicotine via nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) activation is unclear. As previous data suggest that the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (CHRNA7) and(More)
Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) are integral players in homeostasis of immunity and host defense in the gut and are under influence of the intestinal microbiome. Microbial metabolites and dietary components, including short chain fatty acids (acetate, propionate, and butyrate, SCFAs), have an impact on the physiology of IECs at multiple levels, including(More)
In the intestinal mucosa, retinoic acid (RA) is a critical signaling molecule. RA is derived from dietary vitamin A (retinol) through conversion by aldehyde dehydrogenases (aldh). Reduced levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are associated with pathological microbial dysbiosis, inflammatory disease, and allergy. We hypothesized that SCFAs contribute to(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIM The balance between microbes and host defence mechanisms at the mucosal frontier plays an important, yet unclarified role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The importance of microorganisms in IBD is supported by the association of IBD with mutations in pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as NOD2 and TLR4. We(More)
The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway reduces systemic tumor necrosis factor (TNF) via acetylcholine-producing memory T cells in the spleen. These choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-expressing T cells are also found in the intestine, where their function is unclear. We aimed to characterize these cells in mouse and human intestine and delineate their(More)
INTRODUCTION Vagus nerve activity ameliorates intestinal inflammation. Its mechanisms may involve attenuation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production by macrophages (MF) and inhibition of inflammatory processes via the release of acetylcholine (ACh). However, vagus nerve stimulation may also modulate the release of neuropeptides with immune-modulatory(More)