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Migration of both uninfected and infected monocytes into the brain during acute HIV infection likely initiates metabolic changes that can be observed with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Herein, we measured changes in brain metabolism during the first year of HIV infection and examined the relationship of these metabolite levels to CD16+ monocyte(More)
Cells of the myeloid lineage are significant targets for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in humans and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in monkeys. Monocytes play critical roles in innate and adaptive immunity during inflammation. We hypothesize that specific subsets of monocytes expand with AIDS and drive central nervous system (CNS) disease.(More)
Monocytes/macrophages are critical components of HIV and SIV encephalitic lesions. We used in vivo BrdU labeling and markers specific to stages of macrophage differentiation or inflammation to define macrophage heterogeneity and to better define the role of macrophage populations in lesion formation and productive infection. Lesions were heterogeneously(More)
BACKGROUND Macrophages, osteoclasts, dendritic cells, and microglia are highly specialized cells that belong to the mononuclear phagocyte system. Functional and phenotypic heterogeneity within the mononuclear phagocyte system may reveal differentiation plasticity of a common progenitor, but developmental pathways leading to such diversity are still unclear.(More)
CD34+ cell-derived hematopoietic precursors amplified with FLT3-ligand, thrombopoietin and stem cell factor became, after a 6-day induction with GM-CSF, IL-4 and TGF-beta1, HLA-DR+, CD1a+, CD83-, CD86-, CD80- cells. A fraction of them expressed Langerin, Lag, and E-cadherin, resembling epidermal Langerhans cells (LC). TNF-alpha added for the last 3 days(More)
We analyzed the interaction between a bacterial cell wall protein and dendritic cells (DCs). Outer membrane protein A from Klebsiella pneumoniae (kpOmpA) specifically bound to professional antigen presenting cells and was endocytosed by immature DCs via a receptor-dependent mechanism. kpOmpA signaled through Toll-like receptor 2, induced DCs to produce(More)
Outer membrane protein (Omp)A is highly represented and conserved in the Enterobacteriaceae family. Using a recombinant OmpA from Klebsiella pneumoniae (P40), we have analyzed the interaction between OmpA and macrophages. We report that Alexa488-labeled P40 binds (at 4 degrees C) to murine and human macrophages in a dose-dependent manner and is rapidly(More)
OBJECTIVE We investigated whether the expression of CD11b on precursors derived in vitro from CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells was related to their ability to generate CD11b- and CD11b+ Langerhans dendritic cells (LC). METHODS Human CD34+ cells purified from cord blood were cultured with FLT3 ligand, thrombopoietin, and stem cell factor (FTS) for 2 weeks,(More)
BACKGROUND Minocycline is a tetracycline antibiotic that has been proposed as a potential conjunctive therapy for HIV-1 associated cognitive disorders. Precise mechanism(s) of minocycline's functions are not well defined. METHODS Fourteen rhesus macaques were SIV infected and neuronal metabolites measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H(More)
Studies in rodents have shown that brain perivascular macrophages are derived from bone marrow precursors. Less is known about the origin and turnover of perivascular cells in the human central nervous system. We took advantage of non-human primates reconstituted with autologous CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells that had been transduced with a lentiviral(More)