Caroline Rouas

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The extensive use of uranium in civilian and military applications increases the risk of human chronic exposure. Uranium is a slightly radioactive heavy metal with a predominantly chemical toxicity, especially in kidney but also in liver. Few studies have previously shown some effects of uranium on xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME) that might disturb(More)
Uranium is naturally found in the environment, and its extensive use results in an increased risk of human exposure. Kidney cells have mainly been used as in vitro models to study effects of uranium exposure, and very little about the effects on other cell types is known. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of depleted uranium exposure at the(More)
Over the last few decades, prevalence of renal diseases has grown continuously in occidental societies due to life conditions (age, life style, chronic disease, etc.) or potential exposure to nephrotoxic agents (drugs and environmental chemicals). Today, the knowledge of the nephropatology mechanism is improving. Nevertheless, considering it is a complex(More)
Uranium is a radioactive heavy metal with a predominantly chemical toxicity, affecting especially the kidneys and more particularly the proximal tubular structure. Until now, few experimental studies have examined the effect of chronic low-dose exposure to uranium on kidney integrity: these mainly analyse standard markers such as creatinine and urea, and(More)
Uranium level in drinking water is usually in the range of microgram-per-liter, but this value may be as much as 100 to 1000 times higher in some areas, which may raise question about the health consequences for human populations living in these areas. Our purpose was to improve knowledge of chemical effects of uranium following chronic ingestion.(More)
Enzymes that metabolize xenobiotics (XME) are well recognized in experimental models as representative indicators of organ detoxification functions and of exposure to toxicants. As several in vivo studies have shown, uranium can alter XME in the rat liver or kidneys after either acute or chronic exposure. To determine how length or level of exposure affects(More)
Uranium is a radionuclide present in the environment since the origin of the Earth. In addition to natural uranium, recent deposits from industrial or military activities are acknowledged. Uranium's toxicity is due to a combination of its chemical (heavy metal) and radiological properties (emission of ionizing radiations). Acute toxicity induces an(More)
This study aimed to compare the cell stress effects of low and high uranium concentrations and relate them to its localization, precipitate formation, and exposure time. The time-course analysis shows that uranium appears in cell nuclei as a soluble form within 5 min of exposure, and quickly induces expression of antioxidant and DNA repair genes. On the(More)
Uranium (U) accumulates and produces its toxic effects preferentially in the kidneys, especially in the proximal tubular structure. U disturbs the balance of pro-/antioxidants in the renal cortex after acute exposure. Other nephrotoxic agents, such as medications, also cause oxidative stress, but the effects of coexposure are not known. The aim of this(More)
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