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This paper revisits the relationship between health care spending and health outcomes. While previous researchers found it difficult to establish such a relationship based on international comparisons, the results based on rather homogenous province-specific Canadian data show that lower health care spending is associated with a statistically significant(More)
Orientation of the immune response toward Th1, Th2, Th17 or Treg plays an important role in self-tolerance and defence against pathogens and tumors. However, this orientation has not been fully characterised in the pig and little is known about the influence of maturation stimulus on the capacity of dendritic cells selectively to direct different types of(More)
Phase III clinical studies have shown that kidney transplant (KT) recipients treated with the costimulation blocker belatacept exhibited a better renal allograft function and lower donor-specific anti-HLA immunization when compared to recipients treated with calcineurin inhibitors (CNI). We analyzed B cell phenotype in KT recipients treated with belatacept(More)
Human CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) prevent allogeneic graft rejection by inhibiting T cell activation, as has been shown in mouse models. Recently, low-dose IL-2 administration was shown to specifically activate Tregs but not pathogenic conventional T cells, leading to resolution of type 1 diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice. We(More)
We previously showed that Trypanosomacruzi infection in C57BL/6 mice results in a lethal infection linked to unbalanced pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators production. Here, we examined the dynamics of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells within this inflammatory and highly Th1-polarized environment. Treg cells showed a reduced proliferation rate and(More)
Treg cells hold enormous promise for therapeutic application in GVH disease, a lethal complication of allogeneic HSC transplantation. Mouse studies showed that donor-derived recipient-specific Treg (rsTreg) cells are far more efficient than polyclonal Treg cells in suppressing GVH disease. However, clinical grade preparations of rsTreg cells carries the(More)
Tolerance induction in murine allogeneic transplantation is relatively easy, often by induction of regulatory T cells (Treg). Unfortunately, the implementation of these models in clinical situations has not yielded reliable protocols of tolerance induction in humans. Our project sought to create a preclinical model of tolerance induction in large animals.(More)
Although renal transplantation using expanded criteria donors has become a common practice, immune responses related to immunosenescence in those kidney allografts have not been studied yet in humans. We performed a retrospective molecular analysis of the T cell immune response in 43 kidney biopsies from patients with acute T cell-mediated rejection(More)
The role of B cells after transplant regarding allograft rejection or tolerance has become a topic of major interest. Recently, in renal transplant recipients, a B cell signature characterized by the overexpression of CD19+ CD38hi CD24hi transitional B cells has been observed in operationally tolerant patients and in belatacept-treated patients with(More)