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The herbicide glyphosate inhibits the shikimate pathway of the synthesis of amino acids such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. However, much uncertainty remains concerning precisely how glyphosate kills plants or affects cellular redox homeostasis and related processes in glyphosate-sensitive and glyphosate-resistant crop plants. To address this(More)
Substantial evidence has been published in recent years demonstrating that postphotosynthetic fractionations occur in plants, leading to (13)C-enrichment in heterotrophic (as compared with autotrophic) organs. However, less is known about the mechanism responsible for changes in these responses during plant development. The isotopic signature of both(More)
Two phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) kinase genes (PPCk1 and PPCk2) are present in the Arabidopsis genome; only PPCk1 is expressed in rosette leaves. Homozygous lines of two independent PPCk1 T-DNA-insertional mutants showed very little (dln1), or no (csi8) light-induced PEPC phosphorylation and a clear retard in growth under our greenhouse(More)
Cardiolipin (CL) is the signature phospholipid of the mitochondrial inner membrane. In animals and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), CL depletion affects the stability of respiratory supercomplexes and is thus crucial to the energy metabolism of obligate aerobes. In eukaryotes, the last step of CL synthesis is catalyzed by CARDIOLIPIN SYNTHASE (CLS),(More)
Cytosolic NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (cICDH) produces 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) and NADPH, and is encoded by a single gene in Arabidopsis thaliana. Three allelic lines carrying T-DNA insertions in this gene showed less than 10% extractable leaf ICDH activity, but only relatively small decreases in growth compared to wild-type Col0. Metabolite(More)
While the possible importance of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle reactions for leaf photosynthesis operation has been recognized, many uncertainties remain on whether TCA cycle biochemistry is similar in the light compared with the dark. It is widely accepted that leaf day respiration and the metabolic commitment to TCA decarboxylation are down-regulated(More)
To investigate the role of plant mitochondria in drought tolerance, the response to water deprivation was compared between Nicotiana sylvestris wild type (WT) plants and the CMSII respiratory complex I mutant, which has low-efficient respiration and photosynthesis, high levels of amino acids and pyridine nucleotides, and increased antioxidant capacity. We(More)
Environmental controls on leaf NAD status remain poorly understood. Here, we analyzed the effects of two key environmental variables, CO2 and nitrogen, on leaf metabolite profiles, NAD status and the abundance of key transcripts involved in de novo NAD synthesis in wild-type (WT) Nicotiana sylvestris and the CMSII mutant that lacks respiratory complex I.(More)
Plant development and function are underpinned by redox reactions that depend on co-factors such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). NAD has recently been shown to be involved in several signalling pathways that are associated with stress tolerance or defence responses. However, the mechanisms by which NAD influences plant gene regulation,(More)
Gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) has become a promising technique for simultaneous and rapid analysis of small metabolites in complex mixtures. The aim of this work was to establish the quantitative nature of the information generated by amino acid analysis of crude leaf extracts using GC-TOF-MS. Dried aliquots of(More)