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The extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important regulator of the differentiated phenotype of mammary epithelial cells in culture. Despite the fact that ECM-degrading enzymes have been implicated in morphogenesis and tissue remodeling, there is little evidence for a direct role for such regulation in vivo. We generated transgenic mice that express(More)
We have used transgenic mice overexpressing the human tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 gene under the control of the ubiquitous beta-actin promoter/enhancer to evaluate matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) function in vivo in mammary gland growth and development. By crossing the TIMP-1 transgenic animals with mice expressing an autoactivating(More)
The aim was to determine whether eccentric strengthening changed the muscle architecture of human biceps femoris and consequently, knee range of motion. Twenty-two subjects were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups. The experimental group completed an eccentric strengthening programme for 8 weeks. Outcome measures included hamstring muscle(More)
Gelatinase B, a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) of high specific activity, is highly expressed and activated by mouse blastocysts in culture, and inhibition of this enzyme activity inhibits lysis of extracellular matrix (Behrendtsen, O., Alexander, C. M. and Werb, Z. (1992) Development 114, 447-456). Because gelatinase B expression is linked to invasive(More)
The maintenance and developmental remodeling of extracellular matrix is crucial to such processes as uterine implantation and the cell migratory events of morphogenesis. When mouse blastocysts are placed in culture they adhere to extracellular matrix, and trophoblast giant cells migrate out onto the matrix and degrade it. The secretion of functional(More)
During puberty, mouse mammary epithelial ducts invade the stromal mammary fat pad in a wave of branching morphogenesis to form a complex ductal tree. Using pharmacologic and genetic approaches, we find that mammary gland branching morphogenesis requires transient matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity for invasion and branch point selection. MMP-2, but not(More)
BACKGROUND Ectopic Wnt signaling induces increased stem/progenitor cell activity in the mouse mammary gland, followed by tumor development. The Wnt signaling receptors, Lrp5/6, are uniquely required for canonical Wnt activity. Previous data has shown that the absence of Lrp5 confers resistance to Wnt1-induced tumor development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL(More)
The acromial tracker is used to measure scapular rotations during dynamic movements. The method has low accuracy in high elevations and is sensitive to its attachment location on the acromion. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the attachment position and shoulder orientation during calibration on the tracker accuracy. The tracker was(More)
BACKGROUND The scapula locator method has associated intra-observer and inter-observer errors caused by the dependency on the observer to locate the scapular landmarks. The potential effect of the pressures applied by the observer on the measured scapular kinematics when this method is used has also been overlooked so far. The aim of this study was to(More)