Caroline M. Alexander

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We have used transgenic mice overexpressing the human tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 gene under the control of the ubiquitous beta-actin promoter/enhancer to evaluate matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) function in vivo in mammary gland growth and development. By crossing the TIMP-1 transgenic animals with mice expressing an autoactivating(More)
BACKGROUND The scapula locator method has associated intra-observer and inter-observer errors caused by the dependency on the observer to locate the scapular landmarks. The potential effect of the pressures applied by the observer on the measured scapular kinematics when this method is used has also been overlooked so far. The aim of this study was to(More)
Abstract. Electromyographic recordings were made from the trapezius muscle in 18 healthy subjects using surface electrodes placed bilaterally. A mechanical tap applied to the insertion of the lower fibres of trapezius evoked a reflex at 11.9 +/- 1.4 ms (mean plus minus SD) in the ipsilateral trapezius muscle. In addition and surprisingly, short latency,(More)
The control of the scapulothoracic muscles trapezius (Tr) and serratus anterior (SA) has been examined in normal human subjects. Electromyographic recordings were made from the SA and Tr muscles (upper trapezius UTr, lower trapezius LTr) using surface electrodes placed bilaterally. Magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex and electrical stimulation of(More)
The application of tape to the skin overlying the lower fibres of trapezius is generally thought to facilitate this muscle. However, this facilitation has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, the effect of tape upon trapezius motoneurone pool excitability was assessed using the trapezius H reflex. The amplitude of the H reflex was measured(More)
OBJECTIVE Reflexes of shoulder girdle muscles such as trapezius are evoked from muscle afferents supplying the forearm and hand in healthy subjects. These reflexes are thought to aid the stability of the shoulder during use of the arm and hand [Alexander CM, Harrison PJ. Reflex connections from forearm and hand afferents to shoulder girdle muscles in(More)
Using surface electromyographic recordings from the trapezius and serratus anterior muscles and percutaneous electrical stimulation of the median, ulnar and radial nerves, the reflex connections from forearm and hand afferents to these shoulder girdle muscles have been investigated in normal human subjects. Stimulation of the median, ulnar and radial nerves(More)
Descending bilateral control of external oblique (EO) and latissimus dorsi (LD) was investigated using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Contralateral (CL) motor evoked potential (MEP) thresholds were lower and latencies were shorter than for ipsilateral (IL) MEPs. Hotspots for EO were symmetrical; this was not the case for LD. The volumes of drive to the(More)
During puberty, mouse mammary epithelial ducts invade the stromal mammary fat pad in a wave of branching morphogenesis to form a complex ductal tree. Using pharmacologic and genetic approaches, we find that mammary gland branching morphogenesis requires transient matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity for invasion and branch point selection. MMP-2, but not(More)