Caroline M. Alexander

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The acromial tracker is used to measure scapular rotations during dynamic movements. The method has low accuracy in high elevations and is sensitive to its attachment location on the acromion. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the attachment position and shoulder orientation during calibration on the tracker accuracy. The tracker was(More)
BACKGROUND The scapula locator method has associated intra-observer and inter-observer errors caused by the dependency on the observer to locate the scapular landmarks. The potential effect of the pressures applied by the observer on the measured scapular kinematics when this method is used has also been overlooked so far. The aim of this study was to(More)
Abstract. Electromyographic recordings were made from the trapezius muscle in 18 healthy subjects using surface electrodes placed bilaterally. A mechanical tap applied to the insertion of the lower fibres of trapezius evoked a reflex at 11.9 +/- 1.4 ms (mean plus minus SD) in the ipsilateral trapezius muscle. In addition and surprisingly, short latency,(More)
The control of the scapulothoracic muscles trapezius (Tr) and serratus anterior (SA) has been examined in normal human subjects. Electromyographic recordings were made from the SA and Tr muscles (upper trapezius UTr, lower trapezius LTr) using surface electrodes placed bilaterally. Magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex and electrical stimulation of(More)
Benign joint hypermobility syndrome (BJHS) is associated with the early development of certain degenerative conditions, which may be associated with altered muscle activity. This pilot study compared muscle activation patterns during postural tasks between people with BJHS who do not have pain and people with normal flexibility (control group). Sixteen(More)
The application of tape to the skin overlying the lower fibres of trapezius is generally thought to facilitate this muscle. However, this facilitation has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, the effect of tape upon trapezius motoneurone pool excitability was assessed using the trapezius H reflex. The amplitude of the H reflex was measured(More)
OBJECTIVE Reflexes of shoulder girdle muscles such as trapezius are evoked from muscle afferents supplying the forearm and hand in healthy subjects. These reflexes are thought to aid the stability of the shoulder during use of the arm and hand [Alexander CM, Harrison PJ. Reflex connections from forearm and hand afferents to shoulder girdle muscles in(More)
Using surface electromyographic recordings from the trapezius and serratus anterior muscles and percutaneous electrical stimulation of the median, ulnar and radial nerves, the reflex connections from forearm and hand afferents to these shoulder girdle muscles have been investigated in normal human subjects. Stimulation of the median, ulnar and radial nerves(More)
Descending bilateral control of external oblique (EO) and latissimus dorsi (LD) was investigated using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Contralateral (CL) motor evoked potential (MEP) thresholds were lower and latencies were shorter than for ipsilateral (IL) MEPs. Hotspots for EO were symmetrical; this was not the case for LD. The volumes of drive to the(More)
Chondrules in the metal-rich meteorites Hammadah al Hamra 237 and QUE 94411 have recorded highly energetic thermal events that resulted in complete vaporization of a dusty region of the solar nebula (dust/gas ratio of about 10 to 50 times solar). These chondrules formed under oxidizing conditions before condensation of iron-nickel metal, at temperatures(More)