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SmartCell has been developed to be a general framework for modelling and simulation of diffusion-reaction networks in a whole-cell context. It supports localisation and diffusion by using a mesoscopic stochastic reaction model. The SmartCell package can handle any cell geometry, considers different cell compartments, allows localisation of species, supports(More)
Sequencing DNA from several organisms has revealed that duplication and drift of existing genes have primarily moulded the contents of a given genome. Though the effect of knocking out or overexpressing a particular gene has been studied in many organisms, no study has systematically explored the effect of adding new links in a biological network. To(More)
Recent technological and theoretical advances are only now allowing the simulation of detailed kinetic models of biological systems that reflect the stochastic movement and reactivity of individual molecules within cellular compartments. The behavior of many systems could not be properly understood without this level of resolution, opening up new(More)
The massive acquisition of data in molecular and cellular biology has led to the renaissance of an old topic: simulations of biological systems. Simulations, increasingly paired with experiments, are being successfully and routinely used by computational biologists to understand and predict the quantitative behaviour of complex systems, and to drive new(More)
Pattern formation is essential in the development of higher eukaryotes. For example, in the Drosophila embryo, maternal morphogen gradients establish gap gene expression domain patterning along the anterior-posterior axis, through linkage with an elaborate gene network. To understand the evolution and behaviour of such systems better, it is important to(More)
The effects of breed (Friesian, AIS, Sindi-Sahiwal and Jersey), time of day (am v pm) and season of the year (hot or cool) on rectal temperature, pulse rate and respiratory rate were examined in the Highlands and Lowlands of Papua New Guinea. Two types of variation were investigated. Between-cow variation was the basis for the comparison of sites, seasons(More)
Sodium deficiency was suspected from low saliva sodium concentrations in cattle at various sites in the lowlands of Papua New Guinea. In an experiment at Erap, Morobe Province crossbred and pedigree Brahman heifers supplemented with copper, cobalt and/or common salt showed no response to copper or cobalt supplementation. There was a significant growth(More)
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