Caroline Hartley

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In this paper, we study a simple model of a purely excitatory neural network that, by construction, operates at a critical point. This model allows us to consider various markers of criticality and illustrate how they should perform in a finite-size system. By calculating the exact distribution of avalanche sizes, we are able to show that, over a limited(More)
The electrical activity in the very early human preterm brain, as recorded by scalp EEG, is mostly discontinuous and has bursts of high-frequency oscillatory activity nested within slow-wave depolarisations of high amplitude. The temporal organisation of the occurrence of these EEG bursts has not been previously investigated. We analysed the distribution of(More)
Limited understanding of infant pain has led to its lack of recognition in clinical practice. While the network of brain regions that encode the affective and sensory aspects of adult pain are well described, the brain structures involved in infant nociceptive processing are completely unknown, meaning we cannot infer anything about the nature of the infant(More)
More than 235,000 children/year in the UK receive general anaesthesia, but it is unknown whether nociceptive stimuli alter cortical brain activity in anaesthetised children. Time-locked electroencephalogram (EEG) responses to experimental tactile stimuli, experimental noxious stimuli, and clinically required cannulation were examined in 51 children (ages(More)
UNLABELLED Infants within neonatal intensive care units can receive multiple medically essential painful procedures per day. How they respond to these events, how best to alleviate the negative effects, and the long-term consequences for the infant are all significant questions that have yet to be fully answered. In recent years, several studies have(More)
Measuring infant pain is complicated by their inability to describe the experience. While nociceptive brain activity, reflex withdrawal and facial grimacing have been characterised, the relationship between these activity patterns has not been examined. As cortical and spinally mediated activity is developmentally regulated, it cannot be assumed that they(More)
The observation of apparent power laws in neuronal systems has led to the suggestion that the brain is at, or close to, a critical state and may be a self-organised critical system. Within the framework of self-organised criticality a separation of timescales is thought to be crucial for the observation of power-law dynamics and computational models are(More)
OBJECTIVES Premature birth is associated with a wide range of complications in later life, including structural and functional neurological abnormalities and altered pain sensitivity. We investigated whether during anaesthesia premature-born children display different patterns of background EEG activity and exhibit increased responses to nociceptive(More)
In adults, nociceptive reflexes and behavioral responses are modulated by a network of brain regions via descending projections to the spinal dorsal horn [1]. Coordinated responses to noxious inputs manifest from a balance of descending facilitation and inhibition. In contrast, young infants display exaggerated and uncoordinated limb reflexes [2]. Our(More)
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