Caroline C. Sigman

Learn More
I-SPY 2 (investigation of serial studies to predict your therapeutic response with imaging and molecular analysis 2) is a process targeting the rapid, focused clinical development of paired oncologic therapies and biomarkers. The framework is an adaptive phase II clinical trial design in the neoadjuvant setting for women with locally advanced breast cancer.(More)
Because of their safety and the fact that they are not perceived as "medicine," food-derived products are highly interesting for development as chemopreventive agents that may find widespread, long-term use in populations at normal risk. Numerous diet-derived agents are included among the >40 promising agents and agent combinations that are being evaluated(More)
2-[(18)F]Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) assesses a fundamental property of neoplasia, the Warburg effect. This molecular imaging technique offers a complementary approach to anatomic imaging that is more sensitive and specific in certain cancers. FDG-PET has been widely applied in oncology primarily as a staging and restaging(More)
This is the second publication of Clinical Development Plans from the National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, Chemoprevention Branch and Agent Development Committee. The Clinical Development Plans summarize the status of promising chemopreventive agents regarding evidence for safety and chemopreventive efficacy in preclinical(More)
This Perspective highlights biomarkers that are expressed as a consequence of cancer development and progression. We focus on those biomarkers that are most relevant for identifying patients who are likely to respond to a given therapy, as well as those biomarkers that are most effective for measuring patient response to therapy. These two measures are(More)
As addressed by the recent Food and Drug Administration Critical Path Initiative, tools are urgently needed to increase the speed, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness of drug development for cancer and other diseases. Molecular imaging probes developed based on recent scientific advances have great potential as oncologic drug development tools. Basic science(More)
The molecular messenger nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized endogenously from L-arginine by three isoforms of the enzyme NO synthase. The isoform most consistently associated with neoplasia is the inducible form, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). However, the role played by the NO/iNOS system in tumor development is complex, and both promoting and(More)
This manuscript summarizes current thinking on the value and promise of evolving circulating tumor cell (CTC) technologies for cancer patient diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy, as well as accelerating oncologic drug development. Moving forward requires the application of the classic steps in biomarker development–analytical and clinical(More)
Cancer chemoprevention is the use of agents to inhibit, delay or reverse carcinogenesis. The focus of chemoprevention research in the next millennium will include defining the genotypic and phenotypic (functional and histological) changes during carcinogenesis, the cancer risk conferred by these changes, their modulation in preclinical experimentation and(More)
This paper proposes a scientific basis and possible strategy for applying surrogate end points in chemopreventive drug development. The potential surrogate end points for cancer incidence described are both phenotypic (at the tissue, cellular, and molecular levels) and genotypic biomarkers. To establish chemopreventive efficacy in randomized,(More)