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We report for the first time the use of a selective small-molecule inhibitor of DNA repair to potentiate topoisomerase II (topo II) poisons, identifying DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) as a potential target for leukemia therapy. Topo II poisons form cleavable complexes that are processed to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). DNA-PK mediates(More)
Topoisomerase II (Top2) is a ubiquitous nuclear enzyme that relieves torsional stress in chromosomal DNA during various cellular processes. Agents that target Top2, involving etoposide, doxorubicin, and mitoxantrone, are among the most effective anticancer drugs used in the clinic. Mammalian cells possess two genetically distinct Top2 isoforms, both of(More)
Type II DNA topoisomerase activity is required to change DNA topology. It is important in the relaxation of DNA supercoils generated by cellular processes, such as transcription and replication, and it is essential for the condensation of chromosomes and their segregation during mitosis. In mammals this activity is derived from at least two isoforms, termed(More)
PACS-1 is a cytosolic protein involved in controlling the correct subcellular localization of integral membrane proteins that contain acidic cluster sorting motifs, such as furin and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) NEF: We have now investigated the interaction of PACS-1 with heterotetrameric adaptor complexes. PACS-1 associates with both AP-1(More)
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors enhance DNA topoisomerase I (topo I) poison-induced cytotoxicity and antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo, but the mechanism has not been defined. We investigated the role of PARP-1 in the response to topo I poisons using PARP-1-/- and PARP-1+/+ mouse embryonic fibroblasts and the potent PARP-1 inhibitor,(More)
Type II DNA topoisomerases have the ability to generate a transient DNA double-strand break through which a second duplex can be passed; an activity essential for DNA decatenation and unknotting. Topoisomerase poisons stabilize the normally transient topoisomerase-induced DSBs and are potent and widely used anticancer drugs. However, their use is associated(More)
The expression of DNA topoisomerase II alpha and beta genes was studied in murine normal tissues. Northern blot analysis using probes specific for the two genes showed that the patterns of expression were different among 22 tissues of adult mice. Expression levels of topoisomerase II alpha gene were high in proliferating tissues, such as bone marrow and(More)
Human cells express two genetically distinct isoforms of DNA topoisomerase II, alpha and beta, which catalyze ATP-dependent DNA strand passage and are an important antitumor drug target. Here we report for the first time the successful overexpression of human topoisomerase II beta in yeast by cloning a topoisomerase II beta cDNA in a yeast shuttle vector(More)
Topoisomerase poisons such as the epipodophyllotoxin etoposide are widely used effective cytotoxic anticancer agents. However, they are associated with the development of therapy-related acute myeloid leukemias (t-AMLs), which display characteristic balanced chromosome translocations, most often involving the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) locus at 11q23. MLL(More)
Type II topoisomerases are required for the management of DNA superhelicity and chromosome segregation, and serve as frontline targets for a variety of small-molecule therapeutics. To better understand how these enzymes act in both contexts, we determined the 2.9-Å-resolution structure of the DNA cleavage core of human topoisomerase IIα (TOP2A) bound to a(More)