Caroline Agrawal-Gamse

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Mammalian cells employ numerous innate cellular mechanisms to inhibit viral replication and spread. Tetherin, also known as Bst-2 or CD317, is a recently identified, IFN-induced, cellular response factor that blocks release of HIV-1 and other retroviruses from infected cells. The means by which tetherin retains retroviruses on the cell surface, as well as(More)
CCR5 antagonists inhibit HIV entry by binding to a coreceptor and inducing changes in the extracellular loops (ECLs) of CCR5. In this study, we analyzed viruses from 11 treatment-experienced patients who experienced virologic failure on treatment regimens containing the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc (MVC). Viruses from one patient developed high-level(More)
Design of an envelope glycoprotein (Env)-based vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is complicated by the large number of N-linked glycans that coat the protein and serve as a barrier to antibody-mediated neutralization. Compared to normal mammalian glycoproteins, high-mannose-type glycans are disproportionately represented on the(More)
We previously reported that a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) clade B envelope protein with a severely truncated V3 loop regained function after passage in tissue culture. The adapted virus, termed TA1, retained the V3 truncation, was exquisitely sensitive to neutralization by the CD4 binding site monoclonal antibody b12 and by HIV-positive(More)
The HIV envelope (Env) protein uses a dense coat of glycans to mask conserved domains and evade host humoral immune responses. The broadly neutralizing antibody 2G12, which binds a specific cluster of high-mannose glycans on HIV Env, shows that the glycan shield can also serve as a target for neutralizing antibodies. We have described a triple mutant(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env) protein contains numerous N-linked carbohydrates that shield conserved peptide epitopes and promote trans infection by dendritic cells via binding to cell surface lectins. The potent and broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody 2G12 binds a cluster of high-mannose-type oligosaccharides on the(More)
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